Tag: women’s studies

Benita Asas Manterola: The Basque Suffragette

Benita Asas Manterola (1873-1968). Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

Throughout March we’ve been celebrating Women’s History Month with a series of posts about sometimes overlooked but nonetheless remarkable women in history with specific Basque connections. Today we continue with the story of Benita Asas Manterola, who we think can rightly stake a claim to being known as the Basque suffragette.

Born in Donostia in 1873, she studied education in Valladolid, graduating cum laude in 1897. Thereafter, she took up her first teaching post in Bilbao until 1902, when she moved to another position in Madrid. In 1910 she authored a teaching manual, Dios y el Universo. Libro de lectura instructiva para niños y niñas (God and the Universe: Book of instructive reading for boys and girls), which in essay form urged children to reflect on major themes like religion as well as to question conventionality. Subsequently, she began to take part in a series of impassioned debates on women’s suffrage in Madrid. She was a co-founder in 1913 of the daily newspaper El Pensamiento Femenino (Feminist Thought), the aim of  which was to improve the social, legal, and economic position of women by encouraging hem to question their subservience and fight for their rights, and  which she edited to 1916. After it folded, she continued to write articles for another publication, La Voz de la Mujer (The Woman’s Voice). She was president of the main feminist association in Spain, the ANME (Asociación Nacional de Mujeres Españolas, National Association of Spanish Women), between 1924 and 1932; and in 1929 she was a delegate, representing the Spanish Women’s League, at a League of Nations Assembly at its headquarters in Geneva, at which she proposed holding a Women’s World Congress as an instrument to help avoid any repetition of the bellicose international situation that had led to the carnage of the Great War.

A group of women from the Plazandreok political party pay homage to Benita Asas by symbolically renaming a street in her honor in Donostia.

With the coming of the Second Republic in Spain in 1931, as part the process to draw up a constitution, Asas was appointed to present a report to the Spanish parliament on women’s suffrage, with the right to vote eventually being extended to women in 1933. In the 1930s she joined Izquierda Radical Socialista (Radical Socialist Left Party, IRS), but all the while continued to teach. When the Spanish Civil War broke out in 1936, she remained in Madrid and a supporter of the Second Republic against the armed uprising of the military rebels and their supporters. Following the defeat of the Republic, however, in 1939, she reapplied to take up a position in the public education system. However, the newly established Franco regime–through the vehicle of the so-called National Movement (the one-party state)–sought actively to keep out any unwelcome elements from the system; the same system that greatly restricted women’s legal and voting rights, making them subject to the authority of the “heads of the household” (fathers or the husbands). Consequently, in 1940 the Ruling High Commission for Purging Measures declared her unfit to resume her teaching duties on the basis that, “she continues to take an interest in the women’s suffrage movement” and that “a long time ago she believed in Catholic doctrines but prior to the Movement she was a leftist.” She was, moreover, ordered to be removed from Madrid at a distance of more than 30 km (just under 20 miles) of the city.

Asas was 66 years old at the time and thereafter all records of her life appear to have disappeared. She died in Bilbao in 1968 at the age of 95. In the Egia neighborhood of Donostia there is a square named after her; and in the San Inazio neighborhood of Bilbao there is street named in her honor. A new neighborhood constructed in Gudalajara, Spain, in the 1990s named all its streets after women, one of them being Benita Asas.

Information taken from Wikipedia and the Auñamendi Eusko Entziklopedia.

Baiona renames street in honor of Estitxu Robles-Aranguiz

Estitxu Robles-Aranguiz in 1970. Picture courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

In conjunction with International Women’s Day, the City of Baiona yesterday unveiled a plaque commemorating the life and work of singer Estitxu Robles-Aranguiz Bernaola, known simply as Estitxu or “Beskoitzeko urretxindorra” (the nightingale of Beskoitze), and in doing so named a street in her honor in the city.

She was born in Beskoitze (Briscous), Lapurdi, in 1944 to a family of political refugees from Bizkaia fleeing the Franco dictatorship. Her father, Manu Robles-Aranguiz, was one of the founders of the Basque nationalist labor union ELA, and had himself already been forced into exile during the previous Spanish dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera in the 1920s. Born into a naturally musical family made up of ten siblings, she studied classical guitar and at an early age Estitxu formed the Ainarak (The Swallows) group together with her sisters Edurne, Garbiñe, Gizane, and Maitane; while four of their brothers–Alatz, Irkus, Ugutz, and Iker–created the Soroak quartet. In 1967, at the age of twenty-three she began appearing solo in festivals, performing for the first time in public in Bilbao. A year later she released her first single, and this in turn led to more public performances in Bizkaia, Gipuzkoa, and Iparralde, with her rendering of American spiritual, gospel, country, and folk-inspired music in Basque. This early success as a pioneer of the New Basque Folk movement even led to an overseas tour in 1969 when, at the invitation of exiled Basque communities in Latin America, she performed in Mexico and Venezuela. Indeed, her first album was produced in Caracas, and went by the title Una voz increíble (Promus, 1970).

All of this coincided with the waning years of the Franco regime, and her performances in Basque were on more than one occasion subject to strict censorship controls. Still, in the 1970s her recording career really took off as she released a number of singles, albums, and children’s music collections. In the late 1970s and early 1980s she moved away from Basque reworkings of American Folk music toward more traditional Basque music, performing in the United States in 1983. After recording the album Zortzikoak (Xoxoa, 1986), however, she fell ill and was unable to perform for several years. She reappeared in public in 1993, performing a concert in Irun, Gipuzkoa, and signing off by saying “Laster artio, Euskal Herria!” (See you soon, Basque Country!), but three weeks later she was taken ill with cancer once more an died in a Bilbao hospital. A tribute album titled simply Estitxu (Agorila, 1994) was subsequently released in her memory.

CBS Blog celebrates International Women’s Day

Marilyn the trikitilari. Great street art found in Iurreta, Bizkaia.

The Center is proud once more to celebrate International Women’s Day, whose slogan this year is “Be Bold For Change,” and calls on people to help forge a better working world – a more inclusive, gender equal world; while the United Nations theme is “Women in the Changing World of Work: Planet 50:50 by 2030.” We are happy and proud to endorse these sentiments and, following the success of last year’s International Women’s Day post, in which we included a roundup of posts we had done on Basque and Basque-American women, we thought we’d repeat the winning formula by revisiting some of the posts we’ve done this past year on gender-related themes.

Jeanne d’Albert (1528-1572), Queen of Navarre, c. late-16th century. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

As regards the Basque Country itself, we have this past year explored the lives of historical figures like Jeanne d’Albret, Queen of Navarre, and, more recently, Eulalia Abaitua, a pioneering ethnographic photographer in the nineteenth century. In the past week, we’ve seen how women were front and center in eighteenth-century popular protest movements and how Bilbao has come to honor the women boat-haulers of its industrial past. We also remembered Maialen Lujanbio‘s historic victory at the 2009 national bertsolaritza championship. Moving ahead to the present, we got a glimpse into the busy lives of Basque sportswomen Maider Unda and Patricia Carricaburu in a post here. Continuing the sporting theme, we also celebrated along with the Athletic Bilbao women’s soccer team, the 2015-2016 champions, here as well as commiserating here with the Basque Country women’s soccer team that narrowly lost 2-1 against the Republic of Ireland; and we recently mentioned a major women’s pelota tournament. In the field of culture, meanwhile, we covered the premiere of the new pastorala on the extraordinary life of Katalina de Erauso and profiled Naiara de la Puente, an accordionist who was nominated for a Latin Grammy award last year. We also recently bid farewell to pioneering children’s author Marinaje Minaberri.

 

Mother and child. Photo by Eulalia Abaitua (c. 1890). Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

On the other side of the Atlantic we began a successful series of posts based on some of the more unusual or outstanding stories gathered in our major new publication Basques in the United States.  Two of the most read posts in this regard concerned Basque-American women: one on the long and remarkable life of Basque woman sheepherder Juanita Mendiola Gabiola and another on the importance of women more generally in that important historical institution, the Basque boardinghouse, through the lives of Anastasia “Ana” Arriandiaga Gamecho Arteaga and Luciana Celestina “Lucy” Aboitiz Goitia. Moving on to the present we recently included a post on the fascinating life of Teresa de Escoriaza, and, in our series on prominent American women of Basque descent, a profile of actress, singer, and businesswoman Nina Garbiras. And we bid a sad farewell to a beloved author and friend in Joan Errea. On a happier note, we also posted on a great social and networking initiative, the Basque Ladies Lagunak Christmas Luncheon in Reno.

Juanita Mendiola Gabiola, the woman sheepherder.

It would also be remiss of us not to mention the Center’s own dynamic women! We did a roundup of Sandy Ott‘s busy and successful year, as well as that of our (mostly women) grad students.

Our very own Sandy Ott

Ziortza Gandarias from Bizkaia, Amaia Iraizoz from Nafarroa, and Edurne Arostegui from California (or Kalifornia). The future of Basque Studies!

All this month, of course, is Women’s History Month and we are paying special attention to Basque-related stories of women in history, so be sure to keep checking in for more fascinating life histories. And a big shout out to Basque ladies everywhere!

Women’s Pelota Championship Reaches Conclusion

Yesterday, March 5, the finals of the Laboral Kutxa Emakume Master Cup–the principal women’s pelota championship–was held in Zornotza (Amorebieta), Bizkaia.

In total, 80 women took part in the event. They hailed from all over the Basque Country as well as Andalusia, Catalonia, Valencia, and Zaragoza,  and even Cuba and Mexico. They included well-known bertsolari (improvising verse singer) Iratxe Ibarra, from Markina-Xemein, Bizkaia; and Daniela Vargas, from Amecameca, Mexico, who gave up her job as an architect to train for and compete in the competition.

Check out the short promotional video for the tournament here:

The event, involving doubles or pairs, took place over two months and culminated yesterday in two different finals. In the elite category, Olatz Arrizabalaga (from Gautegiz-Arteaga, Bizkaia) and Leire Etxaniz (Etxebarria, Bizkaia) beat Nagore Arozena (Lizartza, Gipuzkoa) and Maider Mendizabal (Anoeta, Gipuzkoa) 22-14, while in the first division final Alba Martinez (Baños de Río Tobía, La Rioja) and Arrate Bergara (Tutera, Nafarroa), both fourteen-years-old incidentally, beat Nagore Aramendi (Azpeitia, Gipuzkoa)–replacing the injured Jaione Zulaika (Getaria, Gipuzkoa)–and Nagore Bilbao (Laukiz, Bizkaia) 22-18.

For more information on the event, see the official website here.

If you’re interested in learning more about this great Basque sport, check out Basque Pelota: A Ritual, An Aesthetic by Olatz González Abrisketa, which sets out to explain what pelota reveals about Basque culture more generally.

March 8: In Honor of Basque Women on International Women’s Day

Here at the Center, on the occasion of International Women’s Day–whose theme this year is “Planet 50-50 by 2030: Step It Up for Gender Equality”–we’d like to take the opportunity to honor Basque women through the ages by sharing with you some of the posts we’ve done this past year on Basque and Basque-American women, and to look ahead to the future.

Josune-Bereziartu-02

World renowned rock climber Josune Bereziartu

In the past few months we’ve looked at the lives of an eclectic group of Basque women, from figures of historical significance like the swashbuckling Lieutenant Nun, Catalina de Erauso, one of the first Basque photographers Eulalia de Abaiatua, and pioneering physicist and meteorologist Felisa Martín Bravo, to contemporary sportswomen who enjoy international renown such as Edurne Pasaban and Josune Bereziartu as well as Basque chanteuse Anne Etchegoyen.

640px-Yolande_Betbeze_NYWTS

The remarkable Yolande Betbeze  Fox (1928-2016)

On the other side of the Atlantic, our attention has switched to an ongoing series devoted to prominent American women of Basque descent, which to date include the recently deceased “Basque spitfire” Yolande Betbeze Fox; fashion icon Norma Kamali; philanthropist extraordinaire Laura Arrillaga-Andreessen; all-round renaissance woman Jauretsi Saizarbitoria; talk show host supreme Cristina Saralegui; and eminent academic Jeri Echeverria.

Hammer of witches

We’ve also reviewed some of our own publications that explore women’s themes in many different and complex ways, such as the moving biography My Mama Marie and innovative anthology Ultrasounds: Basque Women Writers on Motherhood as well as the novels The Hammer of Witches and Zelestina Urza in Outer Space. The female voice and memory, meanwhile, permeate Arantxa Urretabizkaia’s novel The Red Notebook. And don’t forget that one of our textbooks, Basque Gender Studies, is free to download (just click here).What’s more, many other stories of Basque women are included in the 2-volume work, Basques in the United States with principal research by Koldo San Sebastián, with the assistance of Argitxu Camus-Etxekopar, Joxe Mallea-Olaetxe, Jone Laka, and José Luis Madarieta and more. And we hope to share some of these stories with you in the months to come.

A Pioneering Basque Woman Physicist and Meteorologist: Felisa Martín Bravo

Today, February 11, is the International Day of Women and Girls in Science, and here at the Center we’d like to celebrate the pioneering career of Basque physicist and meteorologist Felisa Martín Bravo  (1898-1974).

felisa-martin-bravo

Felisa Martín Bravo

Born in Donostia-San Sebastián in 1898, she graduated high school in her home city and then completed a bachelor’s degree in physical science at the University of Madrid, graduating in 1922. She remained in Madrid to study for her doctorate while working in a research group led by Julio Palacios. Here, applying the Bragg and Debye–Scherrer methods, she established the crystal structure of nickel and cobalt oxides as well as lead sulfide by means of x-rays.

She completed her dissertation in 1926, and later traveled to the United States to teach both Spanish and physics at Connecticut College in New London, CT. While in the US, she also took time out to visit various research labs at Harvard and Yale. After returning to Madrid, she also began work as an assistant at the Spanish Meteorological Office. In 1932, she went to the University of Cambridge where, besides attending classes by the renowned physicist Ernest Rutherford, she also improved her knowledge of the atmospheric sciences thanks to the classes of C.T.R. Wilson. She returned to her job at the Meteorological Office in 1934 but when the Spanish Civil War broke out in 1936, her life, like those of so many others changed dramatically.

The main Meteorological Office was moved to Valencia, under control of the pro-Franco forces, but she decided to remain loyal to the Second Republic and remain in Madrid. In doing so, she lost her job. But in the chaos of the war, it transpired that a director was needed for the Igeldo Meteorological Observatory, just outside Donostia-San Sebastián, and she came to occupy that post between 1937 and 1940. Thereafter, she returned to Madrid and was able, finally and overcoming innumerable hurdles put in her place by the new Franco regime (including an inquiry into how “clean” she was of undesirable political sympathies), to resume a position in the Meteorological Office where she became a fully accredited meteorologist and researched atmospheric electricity.

Little is know of her life after retirement. She died in Mexico in 1974.

Information sourced in Uxune Martinez, “Igeldoko Behatokiko meteorologoa: Felisa Martin (1898-1974),” Zientzia Kaiera (September 19, 2014).

 

Mothers and Writers

ultrasounds_cover

On June 3, 2015, in a column published by the Basque daily Berria (“‘Ai, Ama!’-renak”), Elixabete Garmendia discussed the stories of 17 women authors published by the CBS in an anthology edited by Gema Lasarte and entitled Ultrasounds: Basque Women Writers on Motherhood. Garmendia discusses current debates on the social realities and cultural conceptions of motherhood. She emphasizes the feelings of guilt modern mothers frequently experience for all sorts of reasons in the current working environment and as the result of changing nursing and educational patterns. Garmendia makes references to a “romanticized neo-maternalism” in which apparently progressive attitudes are in fact retrograde and in which women are blackmailed into having to achieve perfection in their parental roles.

To read the original article (in Basque), click here.