Tag: Joseba Elosegi

September 18, 1970: Political self-immolation by Joseba Elosegi

On September 18, 1970, the Basque nationalist activist Joseba Elosegi set fire to and threw himself in front of General Franco, the dictator of Spain, while he was attending an international pelota championship in Donostia-San Sebastián.

Joseba Elosegi (1915-1990).

Joseba Elosegi (1915-1990).

As a soldier in the Basque army in the civil war, he had witnessed the bombing of Durango on March 31, 1937, and was present in Gernika during its infamous bombardment on April 26 that same year. He was ultimately captured and sentenced to death but his was life was spared when he was exchanged for a pro-Franco prisoner being held by the pro-Republic forces. He subsequently went into exile in France, from where he took part in the anti-Franco resistance movement, as well as aiding the Allies in getting airmen whose planes had been shot down across the border from occupied France into neutral Spain. On July 18, 1946, he was involved in one of the most daring acts of civil disobedience against the Franco regime. That day marked the tenth anniversary of Franco’s military uprising and a group of activists hoisted the banned Basque flag, the ikurriña, atop the Buen Pastor Cathedral in Donostia-San Sebastián. He was detained by the police and served some jail time before returning to exile.

In September 1970, the fifty-four-year-old Elosegi carried out an act of self-immolation in protest at the horrors of the Franco regime.  In the words of Cameron J. Watson, in Basque Nationalism and Political Violence (pp. 161-62):

Elosegi, a witness to the destruction of Gernika, in an act of self-immolation,set his own body on fire and threw himself before the dictator, shouting “Gora Euskadi Askatuta!” [Long live the free Basque Country!] He survived, however, and later recalled that the incident represented the last desperate act of a former gudari [Basque soldier] who had obsessively remembered the scenes he saw in Gernika for over thirty years before feeling the compulsion to repeat in his protest the flames he had witnessed in the town that day. “Death does not frighten me,” he later wrote . . .  “it is an obligatory end. When one is born, the journey toward death has begun.” In throwing himself before Franco, he had “symbolically wanted to convey to him the fire of Gernika,” for its destruction, a Holocaust-like offering to the technological advances of Nazi Germany, represented for many Basques an attack on their very existence.

He almost died as a result of the act and spent several days in a critical condition. He survived, only to be condemned to seven years in prison, of which he served three. After Franco’s death, he served as an elected representative in the Spanish Senate for both the EAJ-PNV and later EA, two Basque nationalist parties, between 1979 and 1989. In June 1984, in one final act of civil disobedience, he removed physically a Basque flag from an exhibition in Madrid titled “Flags of the Republican side during the war of liberation,” and was spared legal action against him on account of his position in the Senate.

He died at the age of seventy-four in 1990.

Flashback Friday: No Escape

On August 28, 1937, Joseba Elosegi (1915-1990), a captain in the Basque Army, and other Basque soldiers –-or gudariak–- were imprisoned in the Francoist camp of Castro Urdiales, in Cantabria (Spain). After the war ended in the Basque Country in the victory of Francisco Franco’s army, a considerable body of Basque nationalist troops escaped westward to Cantabria. On August 24, 1937, they were arrested there in Santoña by the Italian Fascist division, the Black Arrows, which was aiding Franco’s army. The Basque Army surrendered to the Italian militia and they signed an agreement, commonly known as the Pact of Santoña. Among other things, the agreement would have allowed all the Basque authorities in Cantabria at that time to leave Spain. Thereafter, however, when Franco received word of this pact, he dismissed the agreement and ordered the immediate imprisonment of the Basques. These Basque prisoners were then moved to El Dueso prison in Santoña.

prison

El Dueso prison in the 1940s


Every Friday we look into our Basque archives for interesting historic events that happened on the same day.

Related reading

War, Exile, Justice, and Everyday Life, 1936-1946, edited by Sandra Ott, is a collection of articles that examine the impact of war, occupation, and exile on ordinary Europeans in the conflicts that engulfed the continent between 1936 and 1946. Many of these articles focus especially on the Basque experience during this tumultuous decade. The book is also available free to download here.

The events described in the post are also discussed in detail in Cameron Watson’s Basque Nationalism and Political Violence: The Ideological and Intellectual Origins of ETA.