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March 8, 1983: Olympic gold-medal canoeist Maialen Chourraut born

Maialen Chourraut. Image at Basque Team website.

On March 8, 1983, slalom canoeist Maialen Chourraut Iurramendi was born in Donostia. Over the last two decades she has competed at the top level in world canoeing, winning the bronze medal at the K-1 event at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London and the gold medal in the K-1 event at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro. She is currently one of the top Basque sports figures.

Chourraut in action in the K1 slalom event at the 2012 Olympics. Picture by David Merrett, courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

Chourraut took up canoeing on La Concha beach in Donostia at age twelve. Thereafter, she joined the Atletico San Sebastian sports club, where she learned her craft, and she competed for the first time for the Spanish national team in 2000 at the Junior World Championships. Under the guidance of her coach (and future husband) Xabi Etxaniz, also a former Olympic canoeist, she rose in the world rankings in the individual kayak (K1) category, the fast sprint event, winning medals at the World and European Championships as well as her achievement of Olympic glory.  In 2013 she gave birth to a daughter, Ane, who was present at her gold medal-winning performance in Rio in 2016 – as you can see in the video below.

And check out the amazing reception she received on returning to Donostia!

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Baiona renames street in honor of Estitxu Robles-Aranguiz

Estitxu Robles-Aranguiz in 1970. Picture courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

In conjunction with International Women’s Day, the City of Baiona yesterday unveiled a plaque commemorating the life and work of singer Estitxu Robles-Aranguiz Bernaola, known simply as Estitxu or “Beskoitzeko urretxindorra” (the nightingale of Beskoitze), and in doing so named a street in her honor in the city.

She was born in Beskoitze (Briscous), Lapurdi, in 1944 to a family of political refugees from Bizkaia fleeing the Franco dictatorship. Her father, Manu Robles-Aranguiz, was one of the founders of the Basque nationalist labor union ELA, and had himself already been forced into exile during the previous Spanish dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera in the 1920s. Born into a naturally musical family made up of ten siblings, she studied classical guitar and at an early age Estitxu formed the Ainarak (The Swallows) group together with her sisters Edurne, Garbiñe, Gizane, and Maitane; while four of their brothers–Alatz, Irkus, Ugutz, and Iker–created the Soroak quartet. In 1967, at the age of twenty-three she began appearing solo in festivals, performing for the first time in public in Bilbao. A year later she released her first single, and this in turn led to more public performances in Bizkaia, Gipuzkoa, and Iparralde, with her rendering of American spiritual, gospel, country, and folk-inspired music in Basque. This early success as a pioneer of the New Basque Folk movement even led to an overseas tour in 1969 when, at the invitation of exiled Basque communities in Latin America, she performed in Mexico and Venezuela. Indeed, her first album was produced in Caracas, and went by the title Una voz increíble (Promus, 1970).

All of this coincided with the waning years of the Franco regime, and her performances in Basque were on more than one occasion subject to strict censorship controls. Still, in the 1970s her recording career really took off as she released a number of singles, albums, and children’s music collections. In the late 1970s and early 1980s she moved away from Basque reworkings of American Folk music toward more traditional Basque music, performing in the United States in 1983. After recording the album Zortzikoak (Xoxoa, 1986), however, she fell ill and was unable to perform for several years. She reappeared in public in 1993, performing a concert in Irun, Gipuzkoa, and signing off by saying “Laster artio, Euskal Herria!” (See you soon, Basque Country!), but three weeks later she was taken ill with cancer once more an died in a Bilbao hospital. A tribute album titled simply Estitxu (Agorila, 1994) was subsequently released in her memory.

CBS Blog celebrates International Women’s Day

Marilyn the trikitilari. Great street art found in Iurreta, Bizkaia.

The Center is proud once more to celebrate International Women’s Day, whose slogan this year is “Be Bold For Change,” and calls on people to help forge a better working world – a more inclusive, gender equal world; while the United Nations theme is “Women in the Changing World of Work: Planet 50:50 by 2030.” We are happy and proud to endorse these sentiments and, following the success of last year’s International Women’s Day post, in which we included a roundup of posts we had done on Basque and Basque-American women, we thought we’d repeat the winning formula by revisiting some of the posts we’ve done this past year on gender-related themes.

Jeanne d’Albert (1528-1572), Queen of Navarre, c. late-16th century. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

As regards the Basque Country itself, we have this past year explored the lives of historical figures like Jeanne d’Albret, Queen of Navarre, and, more recently, Eulalia Abaitua, a pioneering ethnographic photographer in the nineteenth century. In the past week, we’ve seen how women were front and center in eighteenth-century popular protest movements and how Bilbao has come to honor the women boat-haulers of its industrial past. We also remembered Maialen Lujanbio‘s historic victory at the 2009 national bertsolaritza championship. Moving ahead to the present, we got a glimpse into the busy lives of Basque sportswomen Maider Unda and Patricia Carricaburu in a post here. Continuing the sporting theme, we also celebrated along with the Athletic Bilbao women’s soccer team, the 2015-2016 champions, here as well as commiserating here with the Basque Country women’s soccer team that narrowly lost 2-1 against the Republic of Ireland; and we recently mentioned a major women’s pelota tournament. In the field of culture, meanwhile, we covered the premiere of the new pastorala on the extraordinary life of Katalina de Erauso and profiled Naiara de la Puente, an accordionist who was nominated for a Latin Grammy award last year. We also recently bid farewell to pioneering children’s author Marinaje Minaberri.

 

Mother and child. Photo by Eulalia Abaitua (c. 1890). Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

On the other side of the Atlantic we began a successful series of posts based on some of the more unusual or outstanding stories gathered in our major new publication Basques in the United States.  Two of the most read posts in this regard concerned Basque-American women: one on the long and remarkable life of Basque woman sheepherder Juanita Mendiola Gabiola and another on the importance of women more generally in that important historical institution, the Basque boardinghouse, through the lives of Anastasia “Ana” Arriandiaga Gamecho Arteaga and Luciana Celestina “Lucy” Aboitiz Goitia. Moving on to the present we recently included a post on the fascinating life of Teresa de Escoriaza, and, in our series on prominent American women of Basque descent, a profile of actress, singer, and businesswoman Nina Garbiras. And we bid a sad farewell to a beloved author and friend in Joan Errea. On a happier note, we also posted on a great social and networking initiative, the Basque Ladies Lagunak Christmas Luncheon in Reno.

Juanita Mendiola Gabiola, the woman sheepherder.

It would also be remiss of us not to mention the Center’s own dynamic women! We did a roundup of Sandy Ott‘s busy and successful year, as well as that of our (mostly women) grad students.

Our very own Sandy Ott

Ziortza Gandarias from Bizkaia, Amaia Iraizoz from Nafarroa, and Edurne Arostegui from California (or Kalifornia). The future of Basque Studies!

All this month, of course, is Women’s History Month and we are paying special attention to Basque-related stories of women in history, so be sure to keep checking in for more fascinating life histories. And a big shout out to Basque ladies everywhere!

Wines of the Basque Country: “Springing” for a bottle of Txomin Etxaniz Txakoli

Spring time is approaching (believe it or not), and for me one of my favorite warm weather activities is sitting on a patio with a refreshing rosado or rosé wine.

As promised, I intend to share some of the benefits of doing fieldwork in a place that is world-renowned for their gastronomy.  I am excited to share that I had an interview with one of the most prominent txakolineros here in the Basque Country.

Txomin Etxaniz, as I have been told by many, is considered a founding father for the Getariako Txakolina Denominación de Origen.  I was therefore thrilled to have the opportunity to interview Mikel, who’s grandfather is the nephew of Txomin Extaniz himself.  Mikel’s father was one of the men responsible for starting the Denominación de Origen (Designation of origin) in 1989, which originally grew from the seven families that were involved.   It was much earlier, however, that the family was written into the history of viticulture in the region.  In 1649, the Gipuzkoa Protocol Archives mention Domingo de Etxaniz as being linked to growing vines in Getaria.  The family and team still produce this relic of Basque viticulture that started well before Basque gastronomy became world-famous.  From my personal experience, it is one of the most popular labels you can find in the United States for Getariako Txakolina D.O.   

I don’t know if there is anything better than drinking this rosado on a hot summer’s day.  This is the Basque version of the label, while it is translated into English in the United States.

(Txakolin Gorria, translates tored” txakoli, versus the txakolin beltza which means “black” txakoli-much like the French use of “noir” in Pinot Noir).  The acidity seems to be perfectly balanced by the fruitiness that results from mixing the hondarrabi beltza varietal with the better known white hondarrabi zuri (white varietal).  Take it a step further by pairing it with seafood, a creamy brie, or strawberries, and your tastebuds will jump for joy.

While this is a fairly easy find in the United States, which demands much of the rosado production, there’s nothing like drinking this beauty here, close to its roots in Euskalherria.  Did I mention this place comes with a view?

To find this young, zippy wine in the US, you can check out websites like: Wine Searcher

Check out the producer’s website: Txomin Etxaniz

Here is a line-up of all their delicious fermented grape products: 

Stay tuned for more wine and food recommendations fresh out of the Basque Country.  Still to come is this family’s espumoso and late harvest wine (pictured above)!

Cheers, or as they say in the Basque Country, “Topa!”

Women’s Pelota Championship Reaches Conclusion

Yesterday, March 5, the finals of the Laboral Kutxa Emakume Master Cup–the principal women’s pelota championship–was held in Zornotza (Amorebieta), Bizkaia.

In total, 80 women took part in the event. They hailed from all over the Basque Country as well as Andalusia, Catalonia, Valencia, and Zaragoza,  and even Cuba and Mexico. They included well-known bertsolari (improvising verse singer) Iratxe Ibarra, from Markina-Xemein, Bizkaia; and Daniela Vargas, from Amecameca, Mexico, who gave up her job as an architect to train for and compete in the competition.

Check out the short promotional video for the tournament here:

The event, involving doubles or pairs, took place over two months and culminated yesterday in two different finals. In the elite category, Olatz Arrizabalaga (from Gautegiz-Arteaga, Bizkaia) and Leire Etxaniz (Etxebarria, Bizkaia) beat Nagore Arozena (Lizartza, Gipuzkoa) and Maider Mendizabal (Anoeta, Gipuzkoa) 22-14, while in the first division final Alba Martinez (Baños de Río Tobía, La Rioja) and Arrate Bergara (Tutera, Nafarroa), both fourteen-years-old incidentally, beat Nagore Aramendi (Azpeitia, Gipuzkoa)–replacing the injured Jaione Zulaika (Getaria, Gipuzkoa)–and Nagore Bilbao (Laukiz, Bizkaia) 22-18.

For more information on the event, see the official website here.

If you’re interested in learning more about this great Basque sport, check out Basque Pelota: A Ritual, An Aesthetic by Olatz González Abrisketa, which sets out to explain what pelota reveals about Basque culture more generally.

March 1, 1750: Basque women’s protest results in bloody aftermath

Women’s march on Versailles, October 5-6, 1789. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

On March 1, 1750, a group of women in Urruña (Urrugne), Lapurdi, rose up in protest at proposed measures to increase taxes on tobacco. Peasant revolts, often in response to price or tax rises on key goods or commodities by monarchs and governments, were quite a common feature of early modern European life and the Basque Country was certainly no exception to this phenomenon.

Urruña Town Hall today. Picture by Harrieta171, courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

In Iparralde, the Northern Basque Country, women were especially prominent in several impromptu revolts of this kind in the eighteenth century. In 1750, too, for example, a group of women in Baiona (Bayonne) attacked French troops guarding tax collectors. Later, in 1782, women were front and center in Heleta (Hélette). Lower Navarre, in a violent protest against the French authorities for increasing customs duties, while still more plans to increase taxes resulted in a women’s revolt in 1784 in Hazparne (Hasparren). And as late as 1784, in protest at commercial advantages being granted to some areas over others, as Philippe Veyrin comments (p. 230) in The Basques of Lapurdi, Zuberoa, and Lower Navarre, “a tumultuous demonstration of women . . . spread rapidly into the neighboring parishes. To forestall the outbreak of any more violence, it was found necessary to send several regiments in to occupy the region and confiscate over five thousand rifles.”

Tobacco was first cultivated commercially in Europe in France, around the early seventeenth century, and thereafter became a staple crop and commodity in the French Kingdom. Veyrin (pp. 229-30) describes the context in Iparralde:

Lapurdi in particular cultivated tobacco in Nicot, and was happy to indulge in large-scale smuggling of it with neighboring areas. On one occasion the Farmers General enforced the uprooting of the plantations, and its officials distinguished themselves by their excess of zeal, searches, forcible entry, and so on, which provoked a quite legitimate hostility.

These uprisings, which official language treated euphemistically as “emotions,” were a characteristic of the Basque Country in the eighteenth century. What is unusual is that these were almost always started by women who, obsessed by the fear of new taxes and especially the salt tax, were very prone to often untimely demonstrations. There is a long list of those explosions of popular discontent, from those in Donazaharre (Saint-Jean-le-Vieux) in 1685, Mugerre (Mouguerre) and Hiriburu in 1696, Ainhoa in 1724, almost the whole of Lapurdi in 1726 (in connection with the tax on the fiftieth), Baiona in 1748, and Donibane Garazi the same year.

When plans were introduced to hike the price of tobacco, a group of women in Urruña rose up in protest. In response, the French authorities sent a detachment of the royal army to suppress the uprising. On arriving, they opened fire on the women, killing Gratianne de Suhibar, the lady of the house of Candirubaita, Marie Dithurbide, and Agustina de Irigoity. Jean Lapis, the master of the house of Bixitala, also appeared among the dead. It was later claimed, in order to insult his honor, that he had been dressed as a woman at the time of his death.

Memorial plaque on San Anton Church in Bilbao to those who took part in the Salt Tax Revolt. Photo by Zarateman, courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

Such protests in the Basque Country were commonly known as matxinadak (from “Matxin,” a colloquial Basque way of referring to Saint Martin, the patron saint of iron workers and blacksmiths, most likely one of the original groups to rise up in these types of protest). These matxinadak included the famous Salt Tax Revolt (1631-1634) in Bizkaia; the peasant rising led by the rebel priest “Matalas” (Bernard Goihenetxe) in Zuberoa in 1661 against the increased and repressive taxation policies of Louis XIV–an uprising that ultimately resulted in the priest being executed and beheaded; the Customs Revolt of 1718, in which a widespread revolt at new fiscal measures introduced by Philip V abolishing the free-trade status of the Basque Country broke out in Bizkaia and then spread to Gipuzkoa; the Meat Revolt of 1755 in Gipuzkoa; and the Cereal Revolt of 1766 also in Gipuzkoa. By the nineteenth century, these protests, although largely spontaneous like their forebears, took on a more decidedly political dimension and were closely related to defending and maintaining the Basque foral system–the consuetudinary legal system by which the Basque provinces remained largely outside the common governmental structures of both the Spanish and French Kingdoms. Nineteenth-century protests of this kind included the so-called Zamacolada in 1804 in Bizkaia, the Gamazada in Navarre in 1893-1894, and the Sanrokada in Bizkaia in 1893.

Information sourced from Iñaki Egaña, Mil noticias insólitas del país de los vascos (Tafalla: Txalaparta, 2001), p.142 and the Auñamendi Eusko Entziklopedia.

 

Bilbao wharf renamed in honor of women boat-haulers

A major site in the historically important neighborhood of Olabeaga in Bilbao was recently renamed in honor of the women who used to physically haul all kinds of vessels into central BIlbao.

A representation of the sirgueras.

With the industrial development of Bilbao through the nineteenth century, so there was a major increase in shipping traffic into the heart of the city via the Nervion Estuary. However, at the point where the estuary ran through the Olabeaga neighborhood, the river was so silted up that larger boats could not complete the final stretch that would take them into the center of the city. As a response to the problem, groups of men were hired to undertake the backbreaking work of physically hauling smaller vessels by means of a sirga (towrope) along that final stretch toward downtown Bilbao. Yet with the outbreak of the Carlist Wars and the exodus of men from the city, this work was taken up by women. The sirgueras (zirgariak in Basque) who came to do this work were cheaper to hire than men and could be hired in the moment; there was no need to employ them on a permanent basis. Check out the short movie Zirgariak (2006), by filmmakers Fernando Bernal “Ferber” and Urko Olazabal, which portrays just what this job entailed.

Working in such conditions of hard physical labor and  in the dirty conditions of an ever more polluted river, this was work that was looked down upon socially; whether men or women, the people who undertook it were considered ganapanes, humble laborers who earned just enough to cover their daily needs: at the very least, a loaf of bread. This partly explains why these women, in particular, have been excluded from the major narrative of the industrial development of Bilbao.

The newly named wharf, the Muelle Sirgueras / Zirgariak Kaia, stands as a testament to this forgotten collective.

Teresa de Escoriaza: A Pioneering Basque Woman Journalist, Broadcaster, Author, and Teacher

March is Women’s History Month, a celebration that traces its roots back to the first International Women’s Day in 1911 (check out this article by Time to see how this annual event all came about). We at the Center are delighted to be able to share stories of women’s experiences in both the Basque homeland and diaspora, especially in light of the fascinating, important, and often hidden tales such stories reveal. That’s why we’re dedicating special attention this month to recounting some of these stories. Keep checking in with us here at the Center’s website, or via our Facebook page, to read about these amazing women.

teresa-de-escoriaza

Teresa de Escoriaza (1891-1968) during her time as a radio broadcaster.

Today we’re going to talk about Teresa de Escoriaza (1891-1968), a pioneering journalist, broadcaster, writer, translator, and college professor, who–on becoming a naturalized US citizen in 1938–we may reasonably and proudly also celebrate as an influential Basque-American woman.

Teresa de Escoriaza y Zabalza was born in Donostia-San Sebastián on December 7, 1891. She studied in both Madrid and Bordeaux, obtaining a primary education teaching certificate, before going on to attend the Universities of Madrid and Liverpool in the UK (interestingly, another Basque connection with this great port city, as covered in a previous post here). Thereafter, she first embarked to the US in 1917 as an independent woman traveler, aged 25, to teach Spanish and French in schools in Connecticut and Pennsylvania. Staying in the US, between 1919 and 1921 she took up a position as the New York-based foreign correspondent for the Madrid daily La Libertad, tellingly at first under the male pen name Félix de Haro. Having established her reputation, though, from 1921 onward she wrote under her own name.

During this time, she reported back on multiple facets of American life: women’s participation in US elections, the incessant activity and movement she observed in the great New York train stations, the different laws on marriage and divorce in different US states, religion in the US, prohibition, stores and shopping American-style, the freedom of American women compared to their counterparts in Spain, and the burgeoning flying craze that would sweep the US and Europe in the 1920s.

Returing to Madrid, she then wrote for both the Women’s section of the same newspaper and took on another pioneering role: that of war correspondent during the Rif War of the early 1920s between Morocco and Spain, in a series of articles that would later be published in book form as Del dolor de la guerra (Crónicas de la campaña de Marruecos) (On the pain of war (Chronicles from the campaign in Morocco)), published in 1921. Thereafter she continued to write on women’s issues and in the mid-1920s began a radio broadcasting career, exploring many of the same topics on Radio Ibérica. Indeed, she has been described as imparting the first feminist discourse on Spanish radio, a medium that she saw as a liberating vehicle for women’s education, and this during the era of the conservative dictatorship of Primo de Rivera (1923-30). If that were not enough, she shared these labors with an intense period of publishing books: specifically, the translation of a French novel, an anthology of women poets, and a short novel of her own.

scory-passport

A US passport photo of “Scory” in 1960. From the Montclair State University website.

In 1929 she moved to the US once more to take up a position as a professor of Spanish and French at Montclair State Teacher’s College (now Montclair State University) in New Jersey, where she taught there for 30 years until 1959. The outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 and the ensuing triumph of Franco meant that she would remain in the US for most of the rest of her life, becoming a US citizen, as noted above, in 1938. She never married, preferring an independent lifestyle, and after retiring in 1959 she moved to California. Right at the end of her life, she returned home, to the Basque Country and Donostia-San Sebastián, where she died in 1968.

Affectionately known as “Scory” at Montclair, her legacy there was celebrated in May 2012 with the dedication of the Teresa de Escoriaza Seminar Room in honor of her enduring legacy at the university. Quoting the Montclair State University article celebrating this dedication:

“There was something about her that commanded your attention and respect,” says her former student John T. Riordan ’59. “She was a larger than life person who played an important role in inspiring people. Her former students had enormous impact on the teaching of foreign languages in the United States, not just in New Jersey. Every publishing house was full of Montclair State alumni from the late 1940s and 1950s, as well as the New Jersey and national Departments of Education.”

Note: Much of the information here was collected from an excellent article by Marta Palenque, “Ni Ofelias ni Amazonas, sino seres completos: Aproximación a Teresa de Escoriaza,” in Arbor: Ciencia y Cultura 182, no. 719 (May-June 2006): 363-376. Available at: http://arbor.revistas.csic.es/index.php/arbor/article/view/36/36

Ihauteriak: Carnivals in Popular Basque Culture

Today is Fat Tuesday, Mardi Gras, or Astearte Inautea, in other words, the day to get all our excesses in before the 40 days of Lent in the Catholic liturgical calendar. Most people have heard of the celebrations in Brasil or New Orleans, but what about the Basque Country?

Carnivals are celebrated in different ways across the Basque Country, as a previous post from last year explains.  However, some carnivals begin long before the lenten season, such as those celebrated in Ituren and Zubieta (Navarre). Their famous Joaldunak go about the streets, dressed in sheepskins and pointy hats while shaking their bells. They have become symbols of Basque carnivals. However, they are not as unique as you may think.

Joaldunak, by Kike CC-NC-ND

Earlier this year, I read the following description  of a carnival festivity in The Economist, of an event held in  Rijeka, Croatia:

Zvoncari, from The Economist

Romping in Rijeka: Croatia’s carnival

Spring, summer, autumn, winter, party. The Rijeka carnival, known to locals as “the fifth season”, starts on Tuesday and goes on until March 1st. It may not have the glamour of Rio or the glitz of Venice but the port city can still pull the crowds. Festivities start in earnest when the master of revellers is handed the city’s keys and a carnival queen is chosen. Over the coming weeks there are balls, masked karaoke events and boozing in breweries before the climax of the International Carnival Parade—attended by up to 150,000 people. Traditionally, the last group in the parade are the Zvoncari, the sheepskin-clad bell men of Kastav, who also tour local villages in an ancient tradition used to cement bonds between communities. The season ends with the burning of the pust, a puppet blamed for all the previous year’s ills; 2016’s has a lot to answer for.

Don’t the zvoncari remind you of the joaldunak? They also travel from Ituren to Zubieta in a tradition to ward off evil spirits and create unity.

Furthermore, the pust sounds an awful lot like Miel Otxin, the villainous character who is burned on Fat Tuesday in the Carnivals of Lantz (Navarre). During Lantz’s Carnivals a story plays out (based on true events) in which a bandit, Miel Otxin, in the mountains surrounding Lantz, is captured by the town and burned.

Miel Otxin, credit Panzermix Wikipedia Commons

Carnival festivities share many shared features across Europe and beyond. These pagan rituals’ history predates notions of lent and other Catholic traditions. It’s fun to look at the ways certain acts are repeated, demonstrating a shared sense of human community.

Have a great Astearte Inautea no matter how you celebrate it!

Goian bego Marijane Minaberri

Marijane Minaberri (1926-2017).

The writer Marijane Minaberri–also known by the pen names “Andereñoa” and  “Atalki”–passed away last Thursday. Born in Banka, Lower Navarre in 1926, she was responsible for what children’s and young people’s literature expert Xabier Etxaniz terms “real change” in Basque letters, almost single-handedly creating the children’s genre in the Basque language.

As a child she attended the village school in Banka before transferring at age 12 to continue her studies in Donapaleu (Saint-Palais).  She then went briefly to Angelu (Anglet) in Lapurdi to study for a high school diploma, but was forced to return home to care for her sick mother without completing her studies. In 1948, she took up a secretarial position in the Banka Town Hall, but in 1954 she relocated to Uztaritze in Lapurdi, taking up a teaching position at a Catholic school in Baiona (Bayonne). During this time she also began to work in the local press, first as a secretary for the Basque Eclair newspaper, the Basque edition of the Eclair-Pyrénées de Pau newspaper. Through this position, she began writing occasionally for the paper and met significant figures in the Basque cultural world such as Canon Ddiddue (Grégoire) Epherre, Father Joseph Camino (founder of the Basque-language Pan-pin comic for kids), and the journalists and writers Gexan Alfaro and Jean Battitt Dirizar.

By the 1960s, then, she was already an established article writer for Basque-language media in Iparralde, the Northern Basque Country, contributing to the likes of Herria, Gure Herria, Almanaka, and Pan-pin. She also started broadcasting in Basque on the short spots reserved for the language on Radio Côte Basque, hosting shows on bertsolaritza, children’s programming, and record request shows. Later, she would also collaborate on the Basque-language stations Gure irratia eta Lapurdi irratia.

As part of her regular contributions to the Basque-language press in Iparralde, she began publishing poems and short stories in the 1960s.  According to Etxaniz (p. 297-98 in Basque Literary History, edited by Mari Jose Olaziregi):

Marijane Minaberri published her first work for children, Marigorri, a version of a well-known story, in 1961. From 1963 her stories, collected in the book Itchulingo anderea (The Lady of Itchulin), and her poems published two years later in Xoria kantari favor a love of reading, enjoyment, and entertainment over instruction. Minaberri gave birth to children’s literature in Euskara; in her work, although the moralizing intention is present, the careful language, descriptions, and the narrative itself reveal the author’s main concern to be aesthetic. In this sense, Minaberri’s most literary work is the book of poems Xoria kantari (A Bird Singing, 1965), in which, the reader can find a great deal of repetition, onomatopoeia, and rhyme, making these simple poems suitable for children.

Here is an example:

Euria                      Rain

Plik! Plak! Plok!   Plik! Plak! Plok!

Euria                      Rain

Xingilka                 Limps

Dabila.                  Along

Plik! Plak! Plok!   Plik! Plak! Plok!

Jauzika,                Bouncing,

Punpeka,             Jumping,

Heldu da.             Here comes.

Plik! Plak! Plok!   Plik! Plak! Plok!

Pasiola                  Fetch

Behar da              your umbrellas

Atera.                    now.

Of the twenty-three poems in the book, seven include the words for well-known songs. At the end of 1997, the folk group Oskorri produced a record with lyrics by Minaberri called “Marijane kantazan” (Sing, Marijane) in honor of this writer who never knew best-selling success (marginalized because she was from the Northern Basque Country, a woman, and a children’s writer), but who worked silently and unceasingly on [Children’s and Young People’s Literature] projects.

In 1975, the newspaper Sud-Ouest took over Basque Eclair, and she worked as a journalist for her new employers until her retirement in 1990.

Among her many other works, she also published two grammar books to help encourage the study of Basque in Iparralde, Dictionnaire basque pour tous (A Basque dictionary for everyone, 1972-1975) and Grammaire basque pour tous (A Basque grammar for everyone, 1978-1981), as well as a collection of plays for children, Haur antzerkia (Children’s theater, 1983).

In sum, she remains one of the often unsung heroines of Basque letters in the twentieth-century.

Goian bego.

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