On July 14, 1894 the ikurriña–today the Basque national flag–was publicly displayed for the first time outside the Euzkeldun Batzokija, the party headquarters of the Basque Nationalist Party. Designed by brothers Sabino and Luis Arana, it was originally intended to symbolize Bizkaian nationalism but later came to represent the Basque Country as a whole.
The term ikurriña derives from the Basque word ikur, meaning “mark” or “sign.” In the words of Cameron J. Watson, in Basque Nationalism and Political Violence:
The flag was composed of two crosses, one white and the other green, superimposed on a red background. The white cross represented the importance of religion, while the green one represented the Bizkaian “race,” its ancient laws (the fueros), and Euskara. The red background, according to Arana, symbolized the fact that Bizkaians were “ready to shed their blood in defense of the two crosses.”
The ikurriña was officially adopted as the flag of the Basque Autonomous Region in 1936 but, following the victory of General Franco in the Basque Country during the Spanish Civil War, it was banned. It was legalized once more in 1977 and was adopted as the official flag of the Basque Autonomous Community in 1979.
Nowadays, the ikurriña enjoys widespread acceptance as the national flag of all Basques.