Category: CBS (page 1 of 7)

Gernika: voices after the bombs

Gernika exhibit posterThe bombing of cities and civilians during wartime has been a constant in history almost since planes became war guns. On April 26, 1937, Gernika, the sacred city of the Basque people, was brutally attacked and destroyed by the Nazi Luftwaffe and the Italian Air Force, acting under the command of the Spanish General Francisco Franco.  More than 2,000 people were killed.

The bombing of Gernika was one of the first actions of the Condor Legion, a real-life training ground for the Nazi’s Blitzkrieg warfare. The methods developed by this unit served as a model for the bombings by the Luftwaffe during World War II.

Eighty years after this event, with the screaming and cries of those being bombed all around the world on television and social media, the voices of those who witnessed the destruction of Gernika remind us that suffering is real.

The Jon Bilbao Basque Library is opening the exhibit Gernika: Voices after the Bombs. Its goal is precisely to give voice to whose who suffered the bombing and its aftermath. The exhibit comprises a selection of six witnesses testimonials about the pain experienced by Gernika’s inhabitants. These testimonials have been translated into English, audio-recorded, and complemented with a mural of pictures of the ruins of Gernika.

Gernika exhibit photograph wall

The exhibit has been developed by Xabier Irujo, from the Center for Basque Studies, and Iñaki Arrieta Baro and Shannon Sisco, both from the Basque Library. They had the support of Mikel Amuriza, Edurne Arostegui, Daniel Fergus, Jill Stockton, Kathleen Szawiola, Irati Urkitza-Ansoleaga, Kyle Weerheim, and Joseba Zulaika in translations, marketing, and multimedia development.

Opening today, you can visit Gernika: Voices after the Bombs until the end of October at the window exhibit case at the Jon Bilbao Basque Library.

Basques in the United States: Add your personal tale to this ever expanding project

We here at the Center for Basques Studies are amazed by the amount of work that has gone into collecting the countless stories of Basque immigrants to the United States, and the results of this labor can be found in the three volumes, and counting, of Basques in the United States. Now it’s your turn to tell your story! Do you have a relative who migrated to the States? Perhaps you migrated here yourself! Have you taken a look at your own family members’ entries and found discrepancies or have additional information? We’d love your help, and it only takes a few minutes, here’s how:

First, visit our website: https://basquesintheus.blogs.unr.edu

There you will find links to add a new entry, correct an existing entry, or add to an existing entry. Today, we’re going to look at creating a new entry.

Once you click on the link, you will be lead to the following page:

As you can see, it’s a form where you can input all of the information you know. Don’t worry if you don’t have all of the specifics! Fill in what you know.

Next, you will be asked to add more personal information about the family, work experience(s), and stories of your migrant. Once again, do the best you can!

Be sure to add a photo if you have one!

Lastly, you are required to include your own information so that we can reach out to you.

Once again, this is your chance to be part of this amazing project! Be sure to take a few minutes out of your busy day to preserve the history and memory of your family, believe me, it will be worth it. And keep in mind, we regularly post on individuals mentioned in this biographical encyclopedia. Who knows, you or your family members could be next!

Please contact us via replies (at the bottom of this page) if you need further assistance. We look forward to reading your stories!

Center Advisory Board gathers in Reno for 2017 meeting

Center graduate student Amaia Iraizoz presents her research project, on the return of Basques to the Basque Country after living in the United States, to the board.

This past weekend the Center’s distinguished Advisory Board came together in Reno for its annual spring time meeting. It is a very exciting time for the Center and the board with countless projects and events happening that we were proud to present to the Advisory Board members. The events started off on Friday night with dinner at Reno’s Louis’ Basque Corner and then resumed on Saturday with reports on discussions on many of the things that are going on at the Center including new initiatives, new publications, and much much more.

Eskerrik asko to all of the advisory board members who were able to make the trip, some all the way from the Basque County, and we can’t wait to see the ones who weren’t able to make it in the future!

An Interview with Saranda Frommold, a visiting scholar from the Freie Universität Berlin

We had the pleasure to welcome Saranda Frommold to the CBS last month, where she conducted research for her Ph.D. in Political Science at the Institute for Latin American Studies at the Freie Universität Berlin. Her dissertation looks at the political relations between Mexico and Spain with regard to ETA exiles, and we had the chance to hear more about her work during her lecture and many encounters. She brought new perspectives and ideas to the Center and had an energy that would be difficult to beat!

 

Saranda is born and raised in Berlin. She studied Spanish Philology, Political Science, and Ancient American Studies at the Freie Universität Berlin, finishing with a master’s degree and continuing on to her Ph.D. The following is an interview so you too can learn more about this amazing researcher.

 

  • What brought you to the Center for Basque Studies?

During my fieldwork in the Basque Country in 2016, I met the professors Xabier Irujo and Joseba Zulaika, who told me about the Center for Basque Studies in Reno and invited me for a research stay. Several other people I spoke to during my research in the Basque Country also recommended me to go to the Center for a research stay. So I decided to go and spend three weeks in Reno.

  • What is the goal of your project? How far along are you?

My doctoral project deals with “The political relations between Mexico and Spain regarding Basque exile to Mexico (1977-2000).” It’s currently my third year of Ph.D. studies and I’m in the process of writing, because I have already done field work in Mexico and Spain. The goal is to finish my dissertation in 2018.

  • What makes your research unique? What do you enjoy about it most?

I think this research is unique because, first of all, it has not been studied yet. Besides, it includes a lot of empirical evidence like interviews and documents from archives that highlight a different perspective on foreign policy than the media’s. Finally, it is a contribution to the understanding of a part of Basque exile that we almost don’t know. In the last years, I  have really enjoyed my research, because I have learned so much about how to do an investigation, how foreign policy works and that politics are much more complicated than they seem at first sight.  I have especially enjoyed interviewing so many different people, who were so generous to share their experiences, opinions, and perspectives with me and made me feel that this topic should really be investigated.

  • What have you accomplished here at the Center?

At the Center, I was able to do research in the library and the archive, talk to experts in Basque Studies and present my project in the Spring Seminar Series.

  • Has the Center for Basque Studies helped you in any way?

It was a great pleasure to be at the center. The library and the archive really helped me, because I could find material that I had not found in any other place. Everybody was very friendly and gave me a lot of support in my research. Besides talking to experts in Basque Studies, it was a wonderful opportunity to better understand my own research, find new conclusions and have a deep academic exchange.

  • Did you enjoy the U.S.? What did you see beyond Reno?

I had a great time in the U.S. and had the opportunity to visit San Francisco, Pyramid Lake, Lake Tahoe, Mono Lake, Death Valley, Las Vegas and the Grand Canyon.

  • When will you be back?

Hopefully, I will be back soon to personally give  a copy of my finished thesis to the library and see all of you again!

We look forward to that visit and wish you great luck Saranda! Come back soon!

Spring 2017 Basque Multidisciplinary Seminar Series

This semester, like almost every semester, the CBS is holding a Seminar Series. Here’s a round-up of the lectures given thus far and a sneak peak of the coming presentations!

Professor Douglass kicked off the series with his paper entitled “Basques in Cuba,” based on his research and the conference held in Havana in 2015 entitled “Euskal Herria Mugaz Gaindi.” Douglass shared many anecdotes and the audience responded with many questions, carrying on the discussion well after the hour had quickly gone by.

Next up, Saranda Frommold, a PhD candidate at the Freie Universität Berlin,  shared her dissertation findings on “The Political Relations between Mexico and Spain regarding Basque Exile to Mexico (1977-2000).” She has spent three weeks at the Center, continuing her research. The presentation was thought-provoking and also ended in a lively question and answer session. Stay tuned for our interview with Saranda. We will miss her at the CBS.

Last week, I presented a paper entitled “Memoirs of Mobility and Place: Portrayals of Basque-American Identity,” written for a literature class, so a little out of my historical comfort zone. I must say, it went well, and I was excited to recommend Mountain City, by Gregory Martin, to most of my audience. It’s definitely a good read! I compared Martin’s portrayal of Basque communities in the West to that in Sweet Promised Land, Robert Laxalt’s famed memoir.

Next week, March 29 from 12:30-1:30, our Basque Librarian, Iñaki Arrieta Baro, will be presenting on “Bertsolaritza: Kultur Artea Network.” This will be a nice addition to our showcase on Bertsolaritza. Be sure to come visit and see the exhibit!

April 5 is sure to be a busy lecture day. Ziortza Gandarias Beldarrain, a PhD candidate here, will present on “Euzko-Gogoa: Gender and Nation,” as a part of her own dissertation research. Mikel Amuriza will then follow, giving a talk about tax systems. Mikel is a visiting scholar from the Diputación de Bizkaia, and will be with us for a few more months. We’ll be sure to post an interview soon!

Professor Ott will present on April 12, giving a talk on “German P.O.W.s in Post-War France,” part of her ongoing research on the topic. I’m sure it will be full of anecdotes and more!

Lastly, we have the pleasure to have Professor Boehm from the Anthropology department, as well as Women’s Studies and GRI, present on her recently published book. Her conference is entitled “Disappearance and Displacement in an Age of Deportation,” and I’m sure it will bring up many current events and a discussion of what is going on in the world around us.

Be sure to stop by from 12:30-1:30 on Wednesdays for our seminar series. Bring your own brown bag, sit back, and enjoy!

Conferencing on the East Coast with Amaia and Edurne

Last week, from the 1st to the 7th, I had the pleasure of attending the Southern American Studies Biennial Conference “Migrations and Circulations” at the University of William and Mary (Williamsburg, VA) with my colleague Amaia Iraizoz. We took advantage of our trip to the East Coast and visited Washington D.C. and New York City as well. So I’ve taken a moment to share some of our experiences with you, our loyal readers.

Richmond’s Capitol Building

After an early flight out to Richmond, VA, we took the chance to walk around the capital and enjoyed a delicious dinner. We were exhausted from the trip, but the warm weather really encouraged us to explore the city. I’ll be sure to return! The following day, after an hour-long bus ride, we arrived in Williamsburg, a beautiful colonial town, rich in history.

Downtown Williamsburg

Walking through the streets downtown, you feel immersed in the setting, especially since every building is well taken care of and as part of a living history museum of sorts, you bump into people dressed in 18th-century garb. However, we had a conference to attend, so that took us to the University of William and Mary.

Amaia presenting on her dissertation

At the start of my presentation

Like many East Coast colleges, the campus was full of brick buildings and spacious lawns. The event was held at the College of Education, which was conveniently located. The conference brought together a vast array of researchers, dealing with diverse topics. Amaia and I were a bit exotic in our research though, but those who attended our presentations were full of questions about Basque migration and what we do at the Center for Basque Studies. A side note: at the opening  reception, I was surprised to find guindillas, those delicious pickled peppers often served with pintxos or beans. As expected, I had more than just a few…

Conference Selfie

Blurry pic of a guindilla!

We took the train to D.C. where our host, Sam Zengotitabengoa, a member of our board, picked us up and took us on a tour of the town. We couldn’t have had a better guide! He told us about the Basque community on the East Coast and his upbringing there. We even visited the Gernikako Arbola that was planted last year. He also pointed out all the best places to visit and let us stay at his home. We hope to return the favor some day, Sam was amazing!

Representing Nevada!

Washington Monument Sunset

We spent the final two days in New York City. What an intense place! I’ve never felt like such a West-coaster till I visited this city. Everyone and everything seemed to be in movement around me! We had two intense days, seeing all of the sights, including biking around Central Park and going to the Top of the Rock. However, we were on a quest for Basques!

Bikes in Central Park

Top of the Rock

We visited the Delegation of the Basque Country in the United States, and were warmly welcomed by Ander Caballero (the delegate), Unai Telleria (economic development officer), and Felipe Victoria (institutional affairs officer). They wanted to know more about our research and then told us a bit about what they do in New York. We spent quite a bit of time with them and learned more about the delegation’s mission.

Inside the office with the Lehendakari

Unexpectedly, but a testament to Basques around the world, we bumped into Francisco’s Centro Vasco in downtown Manhattan. It’s a shame it was closed, but we’ll be back next time. Unfortunately, the New York Euskal Etxea was also closed, so that’s on our list as well.

Next time Francisco’s!

As you can imagine, we returned to Reno exhausted, but we’re back in action at the Center. We had an intense trip, but it was worth every moment. Till the next conference!

CBS Blog celebrates International Women’s Day

Marilyn the trikitilari. Great street art found in Iurreta, Bizkaia.

The Center is proud once more to celebrate International Women’s Day, whose slogan this year is “Be Bold For Change,” and calls on people to help forge a better working world – a more inclusive, gender equal world; while the United Nations theme is “Women in the Changing World of Work: Planet 50:50 by 2030.” We are happy and proud to endorse these sentiments and, following the success of last year’s International Women’s Day post, in which we included a roundup of posts we had done on Basque and Basque-American women, we thought we’d repeat the winning formula by revisiting some of the posts we’ve done this past year on gender-related themes.

Jeanne d’Albert (1528-1572), Queen of Navarre, c. late-16th century. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

As regards the Basque Country itself, we have this past year explored the lives of historical figures like Jeanne d’Albret, Queen of Navarre, and, more recently, Eulalia Abaitua, a pioneering ethnographic photographer in the nineteenth century. In the past week, we’ve seen how women were front and center in eighteenth-century popular protest movements and how Bilbao has come to honor the women boat-haulers of its industrial past. We also remembered Maialen Lujanbio‘s historic victory at the 2009 national bertsolaritza championship. Moving ahead to the present, we got a glimpse into the busy lives of Basque sportswomen Maider Unda and Patricia Carricaburu in a post here. Continuing the sporting theme, we also celebrated along with the Athletic Bilbao women’s soccer team, the 2015-2016 champions, here as well as commiserating here with the Basque Country women’s soccer team that narrowly lost 2-1 against the Republic of Ireland; and we recently mentioned a major women’s pelota tournament. In the field of culture, meanwhile, we covered the premiere of the new pastorala on the extraordinary life of Katalina de Erauso and profiled Naiara de la Puente, an accordionist who was nominated for a Latin Grammy award last year. We also recently bid farewell to pioneering children’s author Marinaje Minaberri.

 

Mother and child. Photo by Eulalia Abaitua (c. 1890). Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

On the other side of the Atlantic we began a successful series of posts based on some of the more unusual or outstanding stories gathered in our major new publication Basques in the United States.  Two of the most read posts in this regard concerned Basque-American women: one on the long and remarkable life of Basque woman sheepherder Juanita Mendiola Gabiola and another on the importance of women more generally in that important historical institution, the Basque boardinghouse, through the lives of Anastasia “Ana” Arriandiaga Gamecho Arteaga and Luciana Celestina “Lucy” Aboitiz Goitia. Moving on to the present we recently included a post on the fascinating life of Teresa de Escoriaza, and, in our series on prominent American women of Basque descent, a profile of actress, singer, and businesswoman Nina Garbiras. And we bid a sad farewell to a beloved author and friend in Joan Errea. On a happier note, we also posted on a great social and networking initiative, the Basque Ladies Lagunak Christmas Luncheon in Reno.

Juanita Mendiola Gabiola, the woman sheepherder.

It would also be remiss of us not to mention the Center’s own dynamic women! We did a roundup of Sandy Ott‘s busy and successful year, as well as that of our (mostly women) grad students.

Our very own Sandy Ott

Ziortza Gandarias from Bizkaia, Amaia Iraizoz from Nafarroa, and Edurne Arostegui from California (or Kalifornia). The future of Basque Studies!

All this month, of course, is Women’s History Month and we are paying special attention to Basque-related stories of women in history, so be sure to keep checking in for more fascinating life histories. And a big shout out to Basque ladies everywhere!

“Basques in Cuba” : William A. Douglass to lecture at the CBS

Tomorrow, Wednesday, February 22, from 12:30-1:30, Professor Emeritus William A. Douglass will give a lecture on “Basques in Cuba” at the Center for Basque Studies. He will inaugurate the Spring 2017 Basque Multidisciplinary Seminar Series the Center organizes, presenting on a topic explored in Basques in Cuba, a collection of articles edited by Professor Douglass and published after the eleventh international ‘Euskal Herria Mugaz Gaindi” Congress held in Havana, Cuba in 2015. Here’s a brief description of the volume:

Taking as their inspiration and cue Jon Bilbao’s book Vascos en Cuba, 1492–1511, the authors of this book, a collection of international academics, take up the subject of the involvement of the Basque people in Cuba from a variety of viewpoints and analytical and theoretical perspectives. The Basque Country has had a long and varied relationship with Cuba, its people, and its history. The chapters in this volume trace that connection based on diverse topics and viewpoints: the representations of Basques in classic Cuban poetry and Cuba as a topic in the nineteenth-century Basque novel; the involvement of Basques in the African slave trade, the role of the Tree in Gernika in Cuba’s Templete monument, the service of Basque parliamentarians and soldiers in Spain’s former colony, and the politics of Basque priests on the island are all treated, as well as much more. There are also chapters that consider the involvement of Basques regionally, in places such as Cienfuegos, Santiago de Cuba, Vueltabajo, and Havana. Edited by renowned Basque scholar William A. Douglass, this volume provides an important contribution in reclaiming a mostly neglected history. (from the back cover)

Be sure to attend if you happen to find yourself in Reno, and stay tuned for the seminar series schedule, you won’t want to miss out!

Iker Saitua – Life after a Ph.D. in Basque Studies

Iker Saitua received his Ph.D. in Basque Studies here at the CBS last spring, so we’ve decided to catch up with him and see where life takes you after doctoral studies. His dissertation, “Sagebrush Laborers: Basque Immigrants in Nevada’s Sheep Industry, International Dimensions, and the Making of an Agricultural Workforce, 1880-1954,” explores the ways in which the Basque labor force in Nevada evolved from an object of discrimination into a stereotyped prized sheepherder. It then turns to the immigration policies that allowed Basques to continue supplying the labor force, even after the 1924 Immigration Act, through an analysis of U.S.-Spanish relations during the beginning of the Cold War. Impressive indeed and worth reading every bit! But for now, let’s turn to Dr. Saitua…

  1. What have you been up to since graduation?

Keeping busy. After graduating from the University of Nevada, Reno in May 2016, I returned to the Basque Country. Having returned home, I presented my dissertation at the University of the Basque Country, getting a second Ph.D. that received summa cum laude honors in History. While looking for an academic position, I am currently finishing a Master’s Degree in Education at the International University of La Rioja. Concurrently, I am revising my dissertation into a book manuscript. During this time, I have also attended various courses and workshops, including the training course for “Teaching of the Basque Language Abroad,” jointly organized by the University of the Basque Country and the Etxepare Basque Institute. I have also acted as an assessor for the interdisciplinary scholarly journal Sancho el Sabio. Revista de cultura e investigación vasca, among other things.

  1. Have you published any articles?

Yes. My article “Becoming Herders: Basque Immigration, Labor, and Settlement in Nevada, 1880-1910” has been recently published in the journal Montana: The Magazine of Western History (Vol. 66, No. 4, Winter 2016). Please see the following link: https://mhs.mt.gov/pubs/magazine/Current-Issue). Also, I am pleased to announce that the Montana Talking Book Library (a regional library of the National Library Service for the blind and physically handicapped) is recording this article for its collection. Besides this, some of my latest articles on Basque immigration in the American West will be published soon in various peer-reviewed journals. Coming soon!

  1. Do you have any new research interests?

Lately, I have become increasingly interested in the pedagogy of teaching history and social sciences. Besides that, I continue with my research in western, labor, social, legal, and environmental history of the Basques and sheep grazing in the Far West.

  1. What do you do to keep busy?

I keep busy writing history articles, researching, and reading new publications on the North American West.

  1. What do you miss the most from the U.S.?

Lots of things. I miss my colleagues and friends there. I miss those midday coffee breaks with other grad students. I miss those family gatherings too. And of course, Reno, Nevada, and the Great Basin! I miss the West and its wide open spaces.

  1. What is it that you were most excited to return to once back in the Basque Country?

Family and friends. Glad to be back home among them.


As you can see, Iker doesn’t seem to have taken a chance to take a breath post-Ph.D! I must say I look forward to reading his upcoming work and wish him the best. He may miss the West, but I’m sure the West misses him too!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Montevideo’s Euskara Eguna: An overview of the celebrations

As you may have read in our post on the Day of the Basque Language, celebrations were held around the world. Our professor Xabier Irujo took part in the festivities that took place in Montevideo, Uruguay, so we’ve decided to share the jam-packed schedule of events. The way the Basque community in Uruguay was able to organize and observe the event sets a high bar for us all!

The Euskara Eguna (Day of the Basque Language) celebrations organized by the Euskal Erria Society of Montevideo began with the re-inauguration on December 2, 2016, of the Plaza Jesús de Galíndez. Attendees, including Agurtzane Aguado, president of the Society, unveiled a plaque in honor of Galíndez, an exiled Basque nationalist, who was a victim of the Trujillo dictatorship in the Dominican Republic and was assassinated in 1956.

On the 3rd, an act commemorating the bombing of Gernika took place in the city’s Plaza Gernika. A lecture was given by Dr. Xabier Irujo, director of the William A. Douglass Center for Basque Studies at the University of Nevada, Reno, while the txistulari Aitor Ormaetxe from Mar de Plata and the dantzari Martin Mendiola also performed. The event was closed with a concert by the Voces de la Plaza de Montevideo choir.

 

That evening, a meeting of three Basque-American publishers, Euskal Erria of Montevideo, Ekin of Buenos Aires, and the CBS Press in Reno was held at the headquarters of the Euskal Erria Society. There were book presentations of the many publications that came out in 2016. Dr. Irujo presented the ten titles that the CBS Press had published last year, including Basques in Cuba edited by William Douglass, which is a tribute to the book that Jon Bilbao published with Ekin in 1958. With the 400th anniversary of William Shakespeare’s death, the CBS Press also published a bilingual edition of Macbeth, which was translated for the first time into Basque by Bingen Ametzaga in 1942, although this translation had remained unpublished until now. Ekin of Buenos Aires published four books in 2016: La Odisea de Xabiertxo by Koldo Ordozgoiti, Historia de Radio Euskadi by Leyre Arrieta, Contraviaje by Arantzazu Ametzaga, and Diasporako Bertsoak by Asier Barandiaran. These four authors offered a presentation of their works the same day, December 3, at the Durango Book Fair in the Basque Country. The Euskal Erria publishing house produced three works in 2016: William MacAlevey’s The Rise of Legal Professions in Bilbao, José Luis de la Lombana by Iñaki Anasagasti and Josu Erkoreka, and, lastly, Ecos Vascos del Uruguay, a selection of Basque-Uruguayan inspired poems by the former Minister of the Interior and Defense of Uruguay, Raul Iturria.

There were hundreds of attendees who enjoyed a traditional roast (asado con cuero) and a recitation of poems from Iturria’s anthology of poetry.

 

 

 On Monday, December 5, during the afternoon,  Dr. Irujo gave another lecture at the CLAEH University’s headquarters, during which he spoke about the episodes of genocide that struck Basque soil between 1936 and 1945.

The celebrations culminated at the Parliament’s House of Representatives with an homage to the reception on October 8, 1941 that said House made to the Lehendakari Jose Antonio Agirre. The Deputy of the Partido Nacional, Pablo Iturralde, promoter of the tribute, spoke first, referring to the speech that the lehendakari offered before the House of Representatives. He ended by saying: “Today we commemorate the 75th anniversary of the episode that for both Agirre and the Uruguayan Basque community was so significant and moving, because in our country and especially in this House, the national representatives of that moment had the courage to contradict the powerful voice of international fascism that slandered the Basque people with impunity, even accusing them of the genocide in the town of Gernika that they themselves had bombarded with unknown brutality. That is why the descendants of those immigrants today have appealed to us so that, making use of the representation that Uruguayan citizens have conferred upon us, we pay homage to those men who in such dignified fashion came before us.”

 

After Deputy Iturralde’s speech, the president of the Basque Parliament Bakartxo Tejería’s message was viewed on screen, which made reference to the message that Lehendakari Agirre made to the Uruguayan Parliament. Afterward, the Deputy of the Frente Amplio Party Jorge Pozzi, who is of Basque descent, spoke about his spiritual connection to the Basque world and culture. He was followed by Germán Cardoso of the Partido Colorado, Daniel Radio of the Partido Independiente, José Luis Hernández of the Movimiento de Participación Popular (Frente Amplio), and, finally, José Arocena of the Partido Nacional. All of them referred to the noble and hardworking spirit of the Basques and the contribution that these people had made to the culture and history of the country, as well as to the desire for the independence of the Basque people. The MPP representative made public his support for the struggle for recognition of the Basque nation’s right to self-determination.

At the end of the session, which turned out to be very emotional and warm-spirited, the attendees went to the Acuña Figueroa of the legislative palace where the representative of the Euskal Erria publishing house, Mr. Alberto Irigoyen, and the President of the Parliament, Gerardo Amarilla, intervened. A facsimile of Lehendakari Agirre’s diary was given to the latter, as well as a copy of the history of the Euskal Erria Society and a history book on the Basque government-in-exile. The president of the Euskal Erria Society, Agurtzane Aguado, said that there are many Uruguayan figures who have referred to the contribution of the Basques to Uruguay, and recalled the words that Dr. Alberto Guani, President of the Supreme Court of Uruguay in 1941, said of the honor given by that institution to the Lehendakari Agirre: “For the first time in the history of the High Court of Uruguay, a meeting of this nature has been held in honor of a politician; And this has been so because when humanity fights a decisive battle between freedom and slavery, perversion and honesty, justice cannot remain blind to the drama and has the duty to put the sword that it carries as a symbol for the service of human dignity, represented by men like Mr. Agirre, defeated in the first part of the battle in which the forces of good triumphed.” Dr. Irujo closed the act by referring to the deep gratitude of all exiled Basques and immigrants to the American nations that provided asylum to these people when they suffered persecution and oppression in a war-torn Europe. Finally, the choir Voices of the Plaza concluded by singing “Agur Jaunak.”

 

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