Category: Basque Culture (page 2 of 29)

Life and Death in Basque Culture

By KATU:

Today, November 1, is a public holiday throughout the Basque Country coinciding with the Christian holiday of All Saints’ Day. Tomorrow, November 2, is likewise All Souls’ Day, and these celebrations convey the bond between the living and the departed.

From the pre-Christian tradition, likewise, there are hundreds of dolmen and cromlech stone circle sites in the Basque Country. These are believed to be burial places intended to honor the dead and may contain one or several corpses. For William Douglass and Joseba Zulaika, (Basque Culture: Anthropological Perspectives, p. 52), “Generally, the higher the elevation, the smaller and simpler the dolmens, which possibly reflects a basic geographical distinction between lowland and highland peoples in terms of socioeconomic development.” Well into the modern age, on coming across one of these sites on remote mountainsides, shepherds would remove their txapelak (berets) and say a prayer for the deceased there.

With the coming of Christianity, cemeteries became the final resting place for the departed and one interesting feature of Basque cemeteries is the impressive range of funeral stelae (bilarriak in Basque) with their intricate carvings of animals, crosses, stars, suns and more abstract patterns. Moreover, all baserriak (Basque farmhouses) were typically connected to their local churches and cemeteries by means of an hil bide (death road). Moreover, in the words of Douglass and Zulaika, (Basque Culture, p. 296), “a death triggers an all-encompassing series of formal obligations among the survivors defined in terms of their genealogical proximity to the deceased and residential proximity to his or her baserria.”

There are many rituals associated with death in traditional Basque culture. One is the practice of spreading news of a death to not just the local community, but also the animals, especially the bees, for which special respect has always been reserved. A common saying in Bera, Nafarroa was: Etxeko andrea hil da, ta egizu argizeri aunitz, zerua bidaltzeko (The mistress of the house has died, make a lot of wax to send her to heaven). This shows the importance, too, of offering light. Light was thought to be essential when passing over into the other world, and for that reason, all kinds of torches, tapers, and candles hold special importance in Basque funerary rituals. To this day, many Basque homes are adorned with an argizaiola (board of wax), a wooden board with a long coiled candle.

Nowadays, of course, the global reach of Halloween has come to the Basque Country, with people—and especially children—getting into the spirit of things with fancy dress costumes and going out in search of candy. Candlelit pumpkins have even been spotted presiding over Bilbao cityscapes!

Katu’s Pumpkins!

Additional information is taken from Xamar, Orhipean: The Country of Basque.

Check out, too, William A. Douglass, Death in Murelaga: Funerary Ritual in a Spanish Basque Village (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1969).

 

 

 

Multiple acts commemorate 20 years of Guggenheim Museum Bilbao

“Bilbao became the name in the architecture world of the turn of the 21 century.” Joseba Zuaika

There have been a series of acts during the last few weeks in Bilbao to commemorate the twentieth anniversary of the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao.

Guggenheim Reflections was a spectacular light show that lit up the Bilbao waterfront nightly between October 11 and 14.

Then on October 18, the twentieth anniversary of the museum’s inauguration, a gala dinner was held in the building itself, whose 525 guests included Richard Armstrong, director of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, Wendy Fisher, William L. Mack, Karole Vail, and Alberto Vitole, representing the same foundation, the Lehendakari or Basque president, Iñigo Urkullu, as well as Unai Rementeria, the head of the Bizkaian Provincial Council and Juan Mari Aburto, the Mayor of Bilbao.  Guests emjoyed musical accompaniment from the renowned Orfeón Donostiarra-Donostiako Orfeoia and a special dinner menu created by the Basque Country’s leading chefs, including Eneko Atxa, Bittor Arginzoniz, Juan Mari Arzak, Elena Arzak, and Andoni Luis Aduriz.

To commemorate the occasion, too, every resident of Bizkaia has received a free invitation to the museum, and the weekend of October 21-22 it was free to visit.

CBS professor Joseba Zulaika, who has published extensively about the Guggenheim Museum, said this about the anniversary:

The twenty years history of the Bilbao Guggenheim Museum presents a complex diversity of contrasting stories. The most spectacular one is obviously architecture. Bilbao became the name in the architecture world of the turn of the 21 century. It presents the paradigm to measure how architecture could transform a city’s urban fabric. With the iconic architecture came the awareness of the singular relevance of image for a struggling city. The news was no longer Bilbao’s post-industrial ruin and terrorism, and this meant more tourism and more foreign investment. The psychology of the city revived, its multi secular can-do spirit restored. These have been great stories for Bilbao and for Basque society in general. But there is no historical process without its shadows. There was initially a widespread opposition to the idea of a New York museum’s satellite in Bilbao. There were solid arguments to oppose it: the secretiveness and opacity of the agreement, the asymmetries in the sharing of the costs and power structures, the very model of a transnational franchise museum. What nobody knew was that Gehry would produce such an spectacular building hailed as a masterpiece worldwide, and that Bilbao would become the model for other cities to be transformed by architecture. The imposition of urban renewal by spectacular architecture left aside other less grandiose but more participative projects such as Gorordo-Oteiza’s Cultural Center. Nor did it resolve the tension between the strategic investment in the internationalization of arts versus the need to promote local arts, or the conflict between maintaining downtown flagship facilities versus the neglect of marginalized neighborhoods. Parodying Magritte’s pipe photograph with the caption “This is not a pipe,” you could say of the Bilbao Guggenheim that “This is not a museum.” But it is also a museum. And on most accounts, even if you dislike some of the trends it brought in art as commodity and spectacle, it is the best thing that happened to Bilbao during these twenty years.

One of the Center’s flagship publications is Learning from the Bilbao Guggenheim, edited by Anna Maria Guasch and Joseba Zulaika. This multiple-authored work, representing the reflections of a conference held at the CBS in 2004, seeks to address the initial impact of the Guggenheim on the social, economic, political, and cultural landscape of Bilbao, the Basque Country, and beyond. The book is also available free to download here.  

Check out, too, some of the Center’s related works:

Beyond Guernica and the Guggenheim: Art and Politics from a Comparative Perspective, edited by Zoe Bray. Free to download here

Building Time: The Relatus in Frank Gehry’s Architecture by Iñaki Begiristain.

Building the Basque City: The Political Economy of Nation-Building, by Nagore Calvo Mendizabal.

Guggenheim Bilbao Museoa: Museums, Architecture, and City Renewal, by Joseba Zulaika. Free to download here

That Old Bilbao Moon: The Passion and Resurrection of a City, by Joseba Zulaika.

Transforming Cities: Opportunities and Challenges of Urban Regeneration in the Basque Country, edited by Arantxa Rodríguez and Joseba Juaristi.

 

 

October 14, 1933: Birth of poet Gabriel Aresti

Gabriel Aresti, arguably the most important poet in the Basque language still to this day, was born in Bilbao on October 14, 1933. Although his father was a Basque speaker, the family did not transmit this language to the young Aresti and he learned it on his own as a young man. After studying business at university, he went on to become an accountant in his home city, but it was in the field of Basque culture in general, and more specifically poetry, that he really made his name.

Gabriel Aresti (1933-1975)

In general terms, he was in the 1960s and 1970s, along with several other writers and artists, one of the leading champions and exponents of modernizing Basque culture and the Basque language. As regards the former, he promoted the idea of poetry as a vehicle for social awareness, as a means of exposing social problems and a medium in which regular, everyday speech could be incorporated; all this at a time of growing social ferment during the latter years of the Franco dictatorship. In terms of the latter, he was one of the most prominent defenders of creating a standardized Basque–known as Euskara Batua or Unified Basque–amid the heated debates over the topic in the 1960s.

In the words of Joseba Zulaika (in his preface to Downhill and Rock & Core):

Gabriel Aresti was the essential poet for my Basque generation of the 1960s. “If you want to write me/You know where I am,” he wrote, “In this most slippery hell/In the mouth of the devil.” It was the hell of Franco’s repressive regime, the endless darkness of his city, Bilbao, turned into an industrial and cultural wasteland. Aresti was the crucified Bilbao writer howling for justice and truth, the vulnerable man of eternal downfall who created a new poetics and a new subjectivity.

Gabriel Aresti died in June 1975.

Aresti’s poetry was published for the first time in English this year by the Center. Downhill and Rock & Core, translated by Amaia Gabantxo and with an introduction by Jon Kortazar, brings together two of Aresti’s key works: Maldan behera (1959) and Harri eta herri (1964). The poems appear in both Basque and English.

Check out, too, Pello Salaburu’s fascinating study of how standard Basque was created in Writing Words. Here, Salaburu talks at length about Aresti’s involvement in establishing this new language.

 

Interviews with Naiara and Virigina, USAC Visiting Scholars

This summer, we had quite a few visiting scholars at the CBS, thanks to USAC stipends for professors to research abroad. First up, I’d like to introduce Naiara Ozamiz and Virginia Guillén Cañas, professors at the University of the Basque Country.

Naiara Ozamiz is a Doctor in Psychology and Professor of Medical Psychology at the Faculty of Medicine at the University of the Basque Country. She has worked as a psychotherapist in different day units with patients with personality disorders and psychosis. She has mainly specialized in group psychotherapy, although she has also performed individual and family psychotherapies. In 2013, she defended her dissertation on Personality Disorders in the DSM-5. She has published several articles on attitudes towards treatments, personality disorders, psychiatric emergencies, and the elderly.

Virginia Guillén Cañas has a Ph.D. in Neuroscience and has researched eating disorders. Although she studied Psychology, she is not a therapist, although she is versed in Gestalt Therapy. She is a Professor of Psychology and Communication Skills to medical students, as well as dentistry and physiotherapy students, in the Faculty of Medicine and Nursing, Department of Neuroscience, in the area of Psychiatry. Spending most of her time in the Basque Country working on research and other scholarly projects, she researches health improvement and enjoys teaching healthy habits about addictions and gender empowerment, working with children and women.

We took a minute to catch up with them, giving them a chance to reflect on their experience at UNR and Reno more generally.

What brought you to the Center for Basque Studies and UNR?

Naiara: The University the Basque Country offers USAC scholarships every year to be able to go to universities in the United States. I was interested in learning about the University of Nevada and requested the scholarship. Before going, Iker Saitua, (Ph.D. who carried out his doctoral dissertation at the Center for Basque Studies) recommended me to approach the Center. I was also interested in UNR’s Medical School and the Psychology Faculty.

Virginia: I stayed in Reno and UNR for a month thanks to a USAC grant. I chose Reno because of the existence of the Center for Basque Studies.

 

What was the goal of your research?

Naiara: One of the objectives of getting to know the different faculties at the University of Nevada has been to learn about the way they teach, their investigations and their clinical work in different areas.

Virginia: My objective was to search for  opportunities to meet with other colleagues, and I knew that the Center for Basque Studies could assist me in planning my research abroad. I wanted to acquire and refine my medical and scientific knowledge and then apply it through medical education and evidence-based treatments for people, especially those with mental illnesses.

 

What did you accomplish?

Naiara: In the area of teaching, I have been able to see the teaching curriculum of the Medical School, and their teaching methodology. I have been fortunate to be able to attend medical classes. With the methodology and material that the faculty has shown me, I will be able to apply it in the classes of psychology that I give in the Faculty of Medicine.

Virginia: We have worked in the translation of the three questionnaires for measuring communication skills:  a Cognitive and Affective Empathy Test and one on Social Abilities. It was a good chance to adapt and publish these scales into English, since they are only validated in Spanish and Basque. We hope to carry out this research at UNR and University of the Basque Country.

Naiara: As far as research is concerned, the Medical School has given me several ideas to investigate, and maybe, in the future, we will do joint research. Furthermore, the Writing Center has helped me to write scientific articles. As far as the clinical area is concerned, the University of Nevada, Reno has a psychology service for teachers and students, and I found its operation very interesting. At the University of the Basque Country, there is a similar service but in Nevada, they have many more resources, and I would love to take that magnitude to our university.

Virginia: We will go deeper in optimizing the clinical cases given to students after analyzing UNR’s organization of medical curriculum.  Also, their website has additional information about the curricular structure, http://med.unr.edu/ome/curriculum/structure, and about the cases of the week, http://med.unr.edu/ocf/involvement-opportunities/case-of-the-week. Melissa Piasecki has a very interesting book that we will try to translate into Spanish, so we will keep in touch. We will look into congresses about suicide in Europe, where she will attend and collaborate with other groups in preventing suicide.

I have revised three publications at the Writing Center. One publication is about Communication Skills, another one about eating disorders, and last one about Diabetes. I hope to publish them in the next months. The Writing Center is very helpful for Spanish speaking people like myself to write correctly in English.

Did the Center for Basque Studies help you in any way?

Naiara: Above all, I have been helped by the workers at the center. They informed me of different resources that the University has, and of Nevada in general. I have learned about Basque and American culture, and I took several excursions with them. There is nothing like getting to know the country and its history, especially with historians! I am very grateful and they are excellent people.

I have felt more comfortable at the Center for Basque Studies since it has been like being at home. They have taught me about the Basque studies that are being done at the Center and I have learned a lot about Basque history in the Basque diaspora. At the moment, I’m dedicating myself to translating psychology questionnaires into Euskera and I’m trying to write the maximum possible articles in Euskera. The workers at the Center have inspired me to continue doing this work, since their great knowledge in history gives meaning to the work being done in favor of Basque.

Virginia: Visiting the Center for Basque Studies has been very useful because of resources such as the Writing Center, Savitt Medical Library, Summer sessions and the Nevada Historical Society. Also, it was a place where I could share research projects where Basque-speaking people are compared to Spanish and English speaking ones.

I would not have gone to Reno without the help of the Center for Basque Studies. I felt at home, and Edurne and Iñaki explained to us political and social aspects about the way of living and we had conversations comparing American and Basque people. This is very important for adapting there.

I will keep in contact and inform the Center if any research fulfills the objectives of the Center and the University of the Basque Country.  There are three possible projects to collaborate on: Sport in the Environment of National Minorities, Communication Skills in Medical students: Bilingualism and Gender Differences (Third sex), and Adapting a test for measuring eating disorders in Basque, Spanish and English males with eating disorders.

 

Did you enjoy U.S.? What about Reno!?

Naiara: I had a great time in Reno. I have learned a lot and I have loved meeting the people there. The USAC workers have treated me very well. It is an excellent organization. I did not miss anything.
Although the Reno casinos are a bit scary, Reno has some fabulous places. The whole walk along the river with its atmosphere, Louis’ Basque Corner, the Basque monument … and the surroundings are wonderful: Lake Tahoe, Pyramid Lake, and all the trekking that can be done around Reno…
It has been wonderful, just remembering it gives me much joy and I feel like coming back. I feel very grateful for all the people I have met there, they could not have treated me better.

Virginia: Reno and the surrounding areas provide unlimited indoor and outdoor recreational activities. The most impactful aspect is that Reno has a great area full of casinos Downtown but the rest of the city is like any another one. Anyway, the distances are big so USAC offered us bikes and the bus timetables. I would recommend anyone to use them and also Uber, Taxis and UNR’s Campus Escort. The weather has been spectacular.

I liked Lake Tahoe a lot, and next time I would like to share a car or a van to visit the deep countryside of Nevada…for biking, camping, and mountain climbing. I also went to Colorado so I visited the mountains, and I would recommend that trip to everyone!

 

What did you miss the most?

Naiara: Nothing, I did not want to go back to the Basque Country. The only thing that made me go back was to meet my newborn nephew.

Virginia: Nowadays I miss my friends there. My stay was perfect!

 

We do hope you come back and visit!

“Bringing Women out of the Shadows”

Basque migration to the Americas has been widely documented. From the 15-16th century Spanish colonial pursuits to the 20th century Franco dictatorship, Basques left the home country in great numbers to escape economic hardships and political turbulence in search of a better life. In the United States, the image of the lonely Basque sheepherder has become an important figure in the iconography of the American West, and Basque bars, restaurants, and cultural centers continue to thrive as descendants of the once ubiquitous Basque boarding houses.

Women, however, are conspicuously missing from the grand narratives of Basque migration, Ph.D. student Edurne Arostegui argued at her lecture at the CBS Seminar Series. “We need to make an effort to bring female immigrant experiences out of the shadows.” Even canonical works of Basque migration suffer from this lacuna, Edurne argued, while women came in great numbers, and worked just as hard as any man: they were sheepherders, boarding house managers, cooks, translators, housewives, bar tenders, and waitresses, etc. “Basque women immigrants are not given due credit as long as they are featured as mere appendices to their husbands who came to this country with no agency of their own. They did have their own dreams and aspirations about their new lives, and worked very hard for them.” Furthermore, the lecture featured pioneering women who affected gender breakthroughs by taking up traditionally masculine jobs like sheepherding or becoming pivotal figures, as leaders, in their communities. “We need to reach out to these women before their stories get lost,” Edurne concluded.

 

Basque Ladies “Lagunak” Luncheon

 

Last Saturday, the 23rd of September, we celebrated the annual Basque Ladies Luncheon at the restaurant,  Louis Basque Corner. It is an essential event for all the Basque ladies in Reno and its surrounding areas. A unique occasion to gather together, and when there’s food on the table of a good restaurant, it is even better!

The event began at 11.30am, and the restaurant was pretty full when we arrived. The ladies, with their Lauburu necklaces -in all sizes and colors- were conversing,  laughing, and loving each other’s company, some of them, the bravest ones, were drinking Picon Punch. The talented ladies Judy Mendeguia and Joanie Test shared their beautiful handmade horseshoes and crosses with us, such beautiful and exceptional artwork made with so much love and passion. The Center for Basque Studies didn’t want to miss out on the opportunity to show and share our latest publications with the ladies. The reception of our books was incredible, thank you so much!

Around noon we began having lunch, and the menu was delicious. The traditional Basque family-style lunch included soup of the day, French bread, Basque beans, salad, French fries, an entree, and a complimentary glass of house wine or a soft drink, and coffee. They set up an area for us and they treated us phenomenally.

Unfortunately, this lunch wasn’t the same without our beloved, Florence Larraneta Frye who was unable to attend. She is an amazing Basque woman who made the endeavor of the Basque Ladies Luncheon a reality, a dream come true. It is also worth thanking Kate Camino for maintaining the spirit and us ladies together.

Till the next time!

Frank Bergon: Adventures of a Basque American Novelist

The Center for Basque Studies Multidisciplinary Fall Seminar Series has begun with a bang. We had the pleasure of having the acclaimed novelist and professor Frank Bergon give our inaugural lecture, held on September 20 in the beautiful Leonard Room at UNR’s Knowledge Center. There was a terrific audience, much bigger than we would have ever expected, and Bergon’s presentation inspired us all in different ways.

After an introduction by Professor Zulaika and myself, Bergon talked us through his research for his novels, weaving in his own personal narrative. A native of Ely, Nevada, who then grew up in California’s San Joaquin Valley, Bergon’s maternal grandparents were from Bizkaia, while his paternal ones from Bearn. He describes himself, above all, as a Westerner, although his work has explored the presence of Basques in the West.

His lecture was beautifully combined with photographs of his family and the many places he has traveled to for research and writing. Along the way, he spoke of the many Basque characters in his work, as well as the way he finds inspiration for future novels from past characters he has created. He is now working on non-fiction by describing “America’s True West. For Bergon, Western history and literature is not myth vs. reality: it is the complicated lives of people that go beyond stereotypes, from the Marlboro Man to the small rancher.

The audience was attentive to his talk, especially due to his gift of storytelling and charismatic nature. For me personally, having the chance to meet one of my literary heroes was an experience I will never forget. He inspired me to think about new angles and perspectives of the West, as well as helping me to reflect on the writing process. Eskerrik asko, Frank Bergon, and we truly thank you for your participation and warm spirit.

Ahaztu Barik: Remembering Basque Ancestors

By Marsha Hunter

In 1997, Liz Hardesty began a three-year project to identify about 120 Basques that rest without grave markers in the St. John’s Section at Morris Hill Cemetery in Boise, Idaho.  Dorothy Bicandi Aldecoa generously provided the funds to install markers for those who Liz and her team identified. In addition, Mrs. Aldecoa provided a plaque to honor those Basques known to be buried at Morris Hill, but who didn’t have specific burial plot information. The monument bears the names of those not yet located, with the statement: “You are not forgotten.”  Twenty years later, Basques in Boise, such as Meggan Laxalt Mackey continue the quest with Ahaztu Barik, Phase Three of the Hardesty-Aldecoa project.  Ahaztu Barik promotes the lives and memories of those Basques whose burial sites are confirmed, with more detailed information, which may include Basque Country birthplaces, parents, death dates, causes of death in America, and plot locations.

Basque eguzkilore symbols marked the gravesites of 59 persons confirmed by the Ahaztu Barik project.

According to Meggan, we have now confirmed 59 Basque burial sites, marked and verified. There are still another 60+ whose burial locations have not been found and there are little to no records on these people. However, we did find four persons who were originally identified as Basque but were not – they were mostly from Italy or Mexico. This information will be accessible soon on a special webpage that will be linked to the Boise Basque Museum’s new website. Meggan hopes that their work will encourage other western communities with Basque populations to do the same.

A memorial ceremony was held earlier this summer. Here are a few photos from the event. Keep up the good work!

Boise Mayor Dave Bieter, Basque Government director of Communities Abroad Gorka Aramburu, Aita (Father) Antton Egiguren, and the Ahaztu Barik team (Celeste Landa, Meggan Laxalt, and John Ysursa) remember Basque ancestors at the St. John’s section at Morris Hill Cemetery July 28, 2017.

Ahaztu Barik burials will be accessed online through a dedicated website at the Basque Museum & Cultural Center for searches by name, burial plot, and death date, which prompts the viewer to gain more information if it was confirmed (birth date, birthplace, parent names, cause of death).

Boise’s Biotzetik Basque Choir sang for the memorial ceremony at the Morris Hill Cemetery.

Information provided by Meggan Laxalt Mackey.

This ancestral project is sponsored by the Basque Government, Office for the Basque Community Abroad; Boise State University’s Basque Global Collaborative; and the Basque Museum & Cultural Center.

 

 

  

Reno Zazpiak Bat Basque Club’s Fall Picnic

It is always a pleasure to attend any of the Zazpiak Bat Reno Basque Club events, and the Fall picnic was no exception. A few of us from the CBS and Jon Bilbao Library had a great time, not only eating (this is a Basque event after all), but meeting new people, playing mus, and dancing.

The picnic was held on Sunday, September 17 at the Rancho San Rafael. The weather was fantastic, and we all had a few drinks and chatted before the lunch was served. It was a relaxing afternoon of food, drinks, and of course, friends. While children played, the adults took the time to catch up with old friends and new.

The BBQ menu consisted of Basque beans, veggies, salad, bread, cheese, and wine, with the main course of BBQ lamb. The brownies served for dessert completed a perfect meal. Of course, there was a bar with beers and cocktails, including, of course, Picon Punch and Kalimotxo!

 

While the adults played mus, many of the girls danced. Overall, it was a great time spent among lagunak and familia! Till next year!

Monday Movies: “One Too Many” by Borja Cobeaga

We are starting the Monday Movies series to present Basque short films and contemporary cinema! Most of these short films have gained international recognition thanks to the Basque distribution program Kimuak, and they are part of our upcoming book Kimuak Short Films: Seeds of Basque Cinema. Enjoy!

“And she left just like that?”

“Looks like it.”

“Without leaving a note?”

“I don`t know.”

What is a man to do when his wife has had enough and left? Joaquín and his son Fernando seek out the long-forgotten grandma in a nursing home with an ulterior motive. Gran is a marvelous cook, and the two men are more than pleased to have found another woman who takes care of them. But is granny really who they think she is? And if not, does it really matter, once she makes the finest chuletas and tortilla patatas?

To watch the video, click on the link to open it on Vimeo:

 

 

One Too Many by Borja Cobeaga, co-screen writer of the 2014 box office hit Ocho Appelidos Vascos (Spanish Affair) is a portrait of extreme selfishness when men see themselves overcome by loneliness. From the moment of her arrival, grandma takes charge of cleaning the house, which by now is a pigsty, and prepares exquisite meals for the two slackers who do not lift a finger to help her. One day, however, during a phone conversation with his estranged wife, Joaquín discovers that the woman who lives with them is in fact not Lourdes. She is an elderly woman who was so desperate to leave the nursing home that she was ready to become slave to these two egoistic idlers in order to escape her reclusion. Joaquín is at the point of confessing the truth to his son, Fernando, but when he seas the T-bone steaks the impostor has just brought for lunch, he decides to let the sham continue. Grandma, sensing that she was about to be discovered, shots a look full of fear and uncertainty towards the men, and holds up a succulent steak, the only weapon of seduction she has. One Too Many is a bitter sweet comedy about selfishness and the vulnerability of the elderly

 

Borja Cobeaga said this about how he first thought of making this short film:

“I was a little disillusioned, I was never happy with what I was doing, which is why I decided to apply the typical formula of writing about what you know. I grew up with a 70-year-old person, Agustina, the family cook all our lives. She was part of the family; she nourished me! I found a lot of inspiration in her. Elderly people can be very extreme persons with childish behaviors, like jumping the line in supermarkets, but in turn, they are also people with experience. These extremes seemed very good for a comedy. In the end, contrast is the most important element of comedy. Since I decided to write about what I know and started to do things that I most liked, I felt more identified, and I realized that the cliché was true. All the persons that Mariví Bilbao plays in my short films are inspired in Agustina. In conclusion, it`s about taking a real situation, exaggerating it, and putting forth a question: and what if this happened to this character? For example, the question that we formed in One too many was: What would happen if a father and a son were abandoned by the mother?”

 

 

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