Month: April 2019 (page 1 of 2)

Zorionak, Joseba! Dr. Zulaika Retires

By Sandy Ott

Joseba Zulaika and I met thirty-six years ago in Donosti. In 1983, he had just joined the faculty at the University of the Basque Country. I had recently become the director of USAC’s first study abroad program in Donosti. Kate Camino was among that first cohort of pioneering USAC students. Little did any of us know that our professional paths would eventually find us all in Reno as colleagues at the William A. Douglass Center for Basque Studies.

Joseba joined the UNR faculty in 1990, twenty-three years after Bill Douglass became the first coordinator of the Basque Studies Program. When Bill retired in December 1999, Joseba became the Center’s first Director. He has played an integral role in the transformation of the Center, now often described by UNR President Marc Johnson as “a jewel in the crown.” During Joseba’s directorship (2000-2005) the number of faculty doubled, in large part owing to the support of Bill Raggio, Joe Crowley, and Bill Douglass and to skillful lobbying by our longstanding Advisory Board member, Pete Ernaut. Joseba was also closely involved in the creation of that Advisory Board, in response to friendly pressure from the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, Bob Mead. The Advisory Board held its first meeting in January 2001, with John Echeverria as its first Chair and Bill Douglass as its Vice-Chair.

As Director of the Center, Joseba also recognized the need to secure support from Basque public institutions. Our Advisory Board and its leadership under John and Bill helped us obtain financial support from the Basque Government and the Diputación de Bizkaia. Joseba’s efforts, as well as Bill’s, resulted in a $60,000 grant from the Basque Government and an annual agreement to support the Center’s development of online courses, publications and conferences. That ongoing support by the Basque Government and other Basque institutions has proved fundamental to the Center’s record of excellence. Joseba’s close involvement with the developing CBS Press began with textbooks for online courses and expanded into various distinguished series, such as the Classics Series, the Basque Literature and the Basque Diaspora Series. Joseba also played an instrumental role in developing the Basque Library as an integral component in our collective mission to generate and disseminate knowledge about the Basques.

During his long and distinguished career, Joseba has received several awards and prizes, most notably among them the coveted Euskadi Prize for his outstanding memoir, That Old Bilbao Moon. The memoir is an “ethnography of desire, an essay tracking a generation’s consciousness.” Its opening paragraph gives the reader a flavor of the amazing journey ahead: “It was the spring of 1999 and a Carnival Monday morning when I returned for a visit to San Felicísimo (“Saint Happiest”)—the Bilbao monastery where in the 1960s, as a teenager and for almost a decade, I tried hard to become a saint, but was finally expelled, an atheist and suicidal (That Old Bilbao Moon, 2014, p. 9).”

Joseba has long tackled daunting topics in his research and writing. Internationally known for his works on terrorism, Joseba will crown his academic career later this year with the publication of his riveting (and admittedly disquieting), forthcoming book, Killing from Las Vegas: Drone warfare and the American Dream (under contract with the University of California Press).

Joseba, we all wish you every happiness and continuing success in your retirement in July. Thank you so much for everything you have done for the Center.

Sandy Ott

Professor of Basque Studies

April 24, 1898: Birth of Fidela Bernat, the last native-born speaker of Eastern Navarrese Basque dialect

The fortunes of the Basque language have historically paralleled those of the Basque Country itself, with high points and low points, triumphs and defeats. Fidela Bernat Aragüés would ultimately be the last native-born speaker of what Koldo Zuazo (see below) classifies as Eastern Navarrese Basque, the Basque spoken in the Erronkari and Zaraitzu Valleys of Navarre.

Fidela Bernat and her husband Pedro Ederra.

Fidela Bernat and her husband Pedro Ederra.

She was born in Uztarroze, in the Erronkari Valley, on April 24, 1898 and married Pedro Ederra Lorea in 1925. The couple went on to have six children. Herv husband died in 1988, and she passed away on February 23, 1991, at the age of ninety-three, the last native speaker of Eastern Navarrese.

Eastern navarrese was one of the more distinct dialects. According to expert Zuazo, “The Basque forms in Erronkari and in Zaraitzu have been grouped together. Those two valleys used to be influenced from both the north and the south, but for a long time now their main source of influence has been Navarre, to the south. However, they retained their own special character and did not become completely assimilated into the other areas of Navarre and, because of that, I decided to call this dialect ‘Eastern Navarrese’ Basque.”

Check out Koldo Zuazo, The Dialects of Basque.

 

Additional CBS Lecture on May 7th

Have you been wanting to come to the CBS Lecture Series, but Thursdays do not work with your schedule? Well you are in luck! We have added an additional lecture to the Spring 2019 Lecture Series, but on a Tuesday! Come by UNR’s Mathewson-IGT Knowledge Center (MIKC) 305N at 4:30 to 5:30 pm to learn about Basque mountaineering during the interwar period. The presentation will be by CBS visiting scholar, Haritz Monreal. See you there!

For more information on Monreal’s work click here.

Dissertation Defense for Kerri Lesh on May 1st

The Center for Basque Studies is pleased to announce that next Wednesday, CBS graduate student Kerri Lesh will be defending her dissertation titled: “Through the Language of Food: Creating Linguistic and Cultural Value through Basque (Euskara) Semiotics to Market Local Gastronomic Products”.

Her defense will start in MIKC 305N at 9:00 am. Please join us in wishing Kerri our best and congratulations for reaching the final stage!

Kerri Lesh

 

World Book Day 2019

Fun fact: Today, April 23, is World Book Day! and of course, CBS Books is celebrating! Here’s a roundup of the books we’ve published thus far this year, be sure to pick up a copy or two and enjoy! Click on the cover image to go to our Shopify website (https://basquebooks.com/)

Female Improvisational Poets

 

Julio Cesar Arana

 

International Perspectives on Fiscal Federalism: The Basque Tax System

 

Agirre's Diaries

 

Petra, My Basque Grandmother

Social Economy in the Basque Country

Lekuak : The Basque Places of Boise, Idaho

 

Stories of Basque Mythology for Children

 

 

International Alert of Architectonic Heritage in Danger in Donostia

By Eneko Tuduri

This past 9th of April, the International Council of Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS, a branch of the UNESCO) launched the second international alert of architectonic heritage in danger for the Bellas Artes Palace in Donostia/San Sebastian, Gipuzkoa (Basque Country).

The Palacio Bellas Artes (Fine Arts Palace), built in 1914 by the donostiarra architect Ramon Cortázar Urruzola (1867-1945), is “one of the earliest extant examples of a purpose-built movie palace left in the Basque Country and in all of Spain”[1]. Furthermore, the Bellas is a unique innovative building built before the First World War; it follows the French typology of a Palace du Cinéma (movie palace), an eclectic type of monumental buildings, ranging between the Art Noveau and Art Decó styles.

In the first years of cinema films were shown in cafes, regular theaters and street pavilions[2]. It is only after 1907 that cinema theaters were built specifically for their purpose, such as the Gaumont-Palace cinema in Paris[3]. The Bellas Artes is clearly inspired by this cinema theater, but also receives influences from the Viennese Secession architectural style, ancient Egyptian temples and eastern pagodas[4]. Structurally, it is one of the first buildings in Spain using reinforced concrete cast in place, making it a very resistant structure and a more significant building.

The architect, Ramon Cortázar, and his father Antonio Cortazar are part of the most important architect saga in Gipuzkoa´s capital.  Antonio was the designer of the city center, the so-called Ensanche Cortázar. Ramon crowned his father’s decades long work with this building, marking the end of the expansion area of the Donostia 100 years after its destruction by Anglo-Portuguese troops in 1813.

In 2015, the Bellas Artes went from the highest protection category to the destruction of the dome, the most important architectural feature of the building.

On the same day of its 100th anniversary, good news arrived to the defenders of the palace that was already threatened[5]; the building got the highest rate of protection from the Basque Government after a request by ANCORA, the citizen platform formed to defend the monument[6]. However, shortly after this, SADE, the company that owns the building, presented an appeal against this order. In a turn of the events, the government decided to dismiss the protection order. Just after the removal of this protection, SADE informed the city council of the appearance of a crack in the dome and proposed to demolish it, alleging danger of collapse.

Between October 20 and 30 of 2015, SADE demolished the dome of the Bellas Artes building and covered the building with a protective mesh – as a shroud -” to give a sense of decrepitude”[7]. Not only was the dome lost but by this time decorative elements, such as the zinc masks of fantastical creatures in the corners of the dome, were already lost. An order to rebuild the dome was given by the city council to SADE, but without any date or condition.

Today the actual condition of the building is the same as at the end of 2015, without a dome and with the clear intention by the owner to let it deteriorate, declare it a ruin, and demolish it. For these reasons, ICOMOS launched the second international alert. As the dossier about the building declares: “The recovery of its former glory would be desirable” and the ” The Bellas Artes can be and should be protected and fully restored”[8].

 

The Bellas Artes short after the inauguration.

The monument today, after the destruction of the dome.

[1] Dossier of international alert of the ICOMOS about the building. March 30, 2019. p. 2.

[2] Ibidem. p. 2.

[3] Nowadays demolished. Ibidem. p. 5.

[4] Ibidem. p. 14.

[5] September 12, 2014. By May 2015 a first international alert was launch by the ICOMOS warning the local authorities.

[6] This group has defended this monument, but also many other historical buildings in Donostia and the surroundings. Formed by architects and art historians, Ancora received the medal of the city this year because of the task of protecting and disseminating the architectonical heritage of the city. It is not the only citizen group in San Sebastian created in the last years to protect its heritage, showing the high level of destruction of heritage perpetrated in the last decades.

[7] Ibidem. p 4.

[8] Ibidem. p. 15.

April 13, 1965: Death of Matilde Huici

The devastation wrought by the Civil War in Spain in the 1930s and beyond led to countless individual stories of exile and the forging of new lives on the other side of the Atlantic, where, as you will all be aware, Basques of the diaspora made significant contributions to their new host countries. One such story concerns Matilde Huici Navaz.

Matilde Huici (1890-1965). Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

Matilde Huici (1890-1965). Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

Born into a middle-class liberal family in Pamplona-Iruñea  on August 3, 1890, she obtained a teaching certificate at age seventeen and entered into the world of education taking up a position initially in Donostia-San Sebastián. She later relocated to Madrid where she worked in the Residencia de Señoritas, the first official center in Spain established to promote university education for women as well as co-founding  the Association of Spanish University Women in 1928. She also studied for a law degree in the 1920s.

During the time of Spain’s Second Republic in the 1930s she joined the Spanish Socialist Party together with her husband and through that decade became involved in various educational and legal initiatives of the republic.  This culminated in her appointment as  Spain’s delegate to the Commission for the Protection of Children and Youth at the League of Nations in Geneva in 1935. Following the victory of Franco in 1939, she emigrated to Chile, where she established the School for the Education of Children of the University of Chile, which she directed between 1944 and 1962.

Matilde Huici died on April 13, 1965, aged seventy-four.

Dr. Ott’s “Evelyne’s Story: A Jewish Basque Infant Heiress versus the General Commissariat for Jewish Affairs”

Last Thursday, as part of the CBS’ Spring 2019 Lecture Series, Dr. Sandy Ott presented a new and fascinating paper, fruit of her archival research last summer in France. There’s no need for fiction with the trove of documents she has found throughout her years rummaging through piles of dossiers.

Dr. Ott began by telling us that her next step in research on the Nazi occupation of Iparralde is to explore more Jewish cases, which she has done with Evelyne Lang’s incredible story of inheritance.

Evelyne’s grandfather, Adolph Lang, was a wealthy land owner with properties throughout France. When transfers of Jewish property to “Aryans” began in occupied France, Lang did his best to circumvent the laws. His son, Robert, had married a Basque heiress, Eliane Etxeberry and together had baby Evelyne. Lang decided to transfer his property to his granddaughter who was just four months old at the time. Casteig, the provisional administrator for the transfer of this property, requested just that from Xavier Vallat, head of the General Commissariat for Jewish Affairs, who granted the deed of inheritance. The question is, what motivated them to make this exception?

Within the case, Basque inheritance traditions play a major role. When Robert and Eliane married, they signed a deed of separation of goods, making Eliane the sole owner of her household. According to the Jewish statutes of the time, Evelyne was considered 3/4 Aryan, and since her mother was full Aryan, Eliane could administer the property. Casteig therefore argued that a legal transaction had occurred, aryanizing this Jewish property by putting it in the hands of baby Evelyne.  Vallant never tried to stop the process, even though he was known as a raging anti-semite. Although we may never know what else went on between the Langs, Casteig, and Vallant, Evelyne’s story provides a glimpse into some of the strategies Jewish families carried out to maintain what belonged to them.

As usual, I can’t wait to hear more about Dr. Ott’s research. For those of you interested, make sure to check out Living with the Enemy, her latest book.

 

April 7, 2011: Korrika kicks off in…. Burgos?

Street sign in Basque and Spanish in Trebiñu-Treviño, Burgos. Picture by Assar, courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

Street sign in Basque and Spanish in Trebiñu-Treviño, Burgos. Picture by Assar, courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

I hope everyone has gotten their running shoes on because we’re coming to the exciting finale of Korrika 21 right now in the Basque Country. If you don’t know what we’re talking about, check out our posts on Korrika, in 2015, in 2017, and even the 2017 edition in Reno. But did you know that, on April 7, 2011 Korrika 17 started Trebiñu-Treviño, an enclave of Burgos entirely surrounded by Araba? While many people in this enclave would like to become a formal part of the Basque Country, to date it remains officially part of the province of Burgos in the autonomous community of Castile and Leon. To the best of our knowledge, then, this is the only time Korrika has started (or indeed finished) outside of Euskal Herria. Now there’s a good fact to impress your friends with the next time you play Basque trivia!

April 2, 1984: Death of Bilbao poet Angela Figuera

The so-called rootless poetry was a genre of lyric poetry that, insofar as it was able to during the Franco dictatorship in Spain, attempted the counteract the more classical version of lyric poetry that received the official support of the regime. One of the principal exponents of this poetry was a Basque, Angela Figuera Aymerich.

Born in Bilbao in 1902, she was a brilliant student who managed, against the social conventions of the time and despite spending much of her childhood raising her siblings on account of her mother’s poor health, to earn a university degree and, by the early 1930s, she qualified to become a public high school teacher. After marrying in 1933 she relocated to Madrid, but following the Spanish Civil War, on which her sympathies were on the losing side, she was stripped of her job and degree. Despite the repression suffered by her family, she managed to develop an incipient career as a writer.Simultaneously, in the 1950s she began working in mobile libraries that served the peripheral neighborhoods of Madrid.  She published sporadically and much of her work was aimed, where possible given conditions of censorship, against the Franco regime, from a feminist, existentialist, and social conscience perspective. During this time, she developed especially close relationships with fellow Basques writing social poetry in Spanish, Gabriel Celaya and Blas de Otero, together with who  she formed was termed the so-called Basque postwar triumvirate. Following Franco’s death in 1975, she was critical of the flaws she saw in the transition to democracy in Spain.

After a short illness, she died on April 2, 1984. In English, see Jo Evans, Moving Reflections: Gender, Faith and Aesthetics in the Work of Angela Figuera Aymerich (London: Tamesis, 1996).

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