Month: February 2017 (page 1 of 2)

Ihauteriak: Carnivals in Popular Basque Culture

Today is Fat Tuesday, Mardi Gras, or Astearte Inautea, in other words, the day to get all our excesses in before the 40 days of Lent in the Catholic liturgical calendar. Most people have heard of the celebrations in Brasil or New Orleans, but what about the Basque Country?

Carnivals are celebrated in different ways across the Basque Country, as a previous post from last year explains.  However, some carnivals begin long before the lenten season, such as those celebrated in Ituren and Zubieta (Navarre). Their famous Joaldunak go about the streets, dressed in sheepskins and pointy hats while shaking their bells. They have become symbols of Basque carnivals. However, they are not as unique as you may think.

Joaldunak, by Kike CC-NC-ND

Earlier this year, I read the following description  of a carnival festivity in The Economist, of an event held in  Rijeka, Croatia:

Zvoncari, from The Economist

Romping in Rijeka: Croatia’s carnival

Spring, summer, autumn, winter, party. The Rijeka carnival, known to locals as “the fifth season”, starts on Tuesday and goes on until March 1st. It may not have the glamour of Rio or the glitz of Venice but the port city can still pull the crowds. Festivities start in earnest when the master of revellers is handed the city’s keys and a carnival queen is chosen. Over the coming weeks there are balls, masked karaoke events and boozing in breweries before the climax of the International Carnival Parade—attended by up to 150,000 people. Traditionally, the last group in the parade are the Zvoncari, the sheepskin-clad bell men of Kastav, who also tour local villages in an ancient tradition used to cement bonds between communities. The season ends with the burning of the pust, a puppet blamed for all the previous year’s ills; 2016’s has a lot to answer for.

Don’t the zvoncari remind you of the joaldunak? They also travel from Ituren to Zubieta in a tradition to ward off evil spirits and create unity.

Furthermore, the pust sounds an awful lot like Miel Otxin, the villainous character who is burned on Fat Tuesday in the Carnivals of Lantz (Navarre). During Lantz’s Carnivals a story plays out (based on true events) in which a bandit, Miel Otxin, in the mountains surrounding Lantz, is captured by the town and burned.

Miel Otxin, credit Panzermix Wikipedia Commons

Carnival festivities share many shared features across Europe and beyond. These pagan rituals’ history predates notions of lent and other Catholic traditions. It’s fun to look at the ways certain acts are repeated, demonstrating a shared sense of human community.

Have a great Astearte Inautea no matter how you celebrate it!

Goian bego Marijane Minaberri

Marijane Minaberri (1926-2017).

The writer Marijane Minaberri–also known by the pen names “Andereñoa” and  “Atalki”–passed away last Thursday. Born in Banka, Lower Navarre in 1926, she was responsible for what children’s and young people’s literature expert Xabier Etxaniz terms “real change” in Basque letters, almost single-handedly creating the children’s genre in the Basque language.

As a child she attended the village school in Banka before transferring at age 12 to continue her studies in Donapaleu (Saint-Palais).  She then went briefly to Angelu (Anglet) in Lapurdi to study for a high school diploma, but was forced to return home to care for her sick mother without completing her studies. In 1948, she took up a secretarial position in the Banka Town Hall, but in 1954 she relocated to Uztaritze in Lapurdi, taking up a teaching position at a Catholic school in Baiona (Bayonne). During this time she also began to work in the local press, first as a secretary for the Basque Eclair newspaper, the Basque edition of the Eclair-Pyrénées de Pau newspaper. Through this position, she began writing occasionally for the paper and met significant figures in the Basque cultural world such as Canon Ddiddue (Grégoire) Epherre, Father Joseph Camino (founder of the Basque-language Pan-pin comic for kids), and the journalists and writers Gexan Alfaro and Jean Battitt Dirizar.

By the 1960s, then, she was already an established article writer for Basque-language media in Iparralde, the Northern Basque Country, contributing to the likes of Herria, Gure Herria, Almanaka, and Pan-pin. She also started broadcasting in Basque on the short spots reserved for the language on Radio Côte Basque, hosting shows on bertsolaritza, children’s programming, and record request shows. Later, she would also collaborate on the Basque-language stations Gure irratia eta Lapurdi irratia.

As part of her regular contributions to the Basque-language press in Iparralde, she began publishing poems and short stories in the 1960s.  According to Etxaniz (p. 297-98 in Basque Literary History, edited by Mari Jose Olaziregi):

Marijane Minaberri published her first work for children, Marigorri, a version of a well-known story, in 1961. From 1963 her stories, collected in the book Itchulingo anderea (The Lady of Itchulin), and her poems published two years later in Xoria kantari favor a love of reading, enjoyment, and entertainment over instruction. Minaberri gave birth to children’s literature in Euskara; in her work, although the moralizing intention is present, the careful language, descriptions, and the narrative itself reveal the author’s main concern to be aesthetic. In this sense, Minaberri’s most literary work is the book of poems Xoria kantari (A Bird Singing, 1965), in which, the reader can find a great deal of repetition, onomatopoeia, and rhyme, making these simple poems suitable for children.

Here is an example:

Euria                      Rain

Plik! Plak! Plok!   Plik! Plak! Plok!

Euria                      Rain

Xingilka                 Limps

Dabila.                  Along

Plik! Plak! Plok!   Plik! Plak! Plok!

Jauzika,                Bouncing,

Punpeka,             Jumping,

Heldu da.             Here comes.

Plik! Plak! Plok!   Plik! Plak! Plok!

Pasiola                  Fetch

Behar da              your umbrellas

Atera.                    now.

Of the twenty-three poems in the book, seven include the words for well-known songs. At the end of 1997, the folk group Oskorri produced a record with lyrics by Minaberri called “Marijane kantazan” (Sing, Marijane) in honor of this writer who never knew best-selling success (marginalized because she was from the Northern Basque Country, a woman, and a children’s writer), but who worked silently and unceasingly on [Children’s and Young People’s Literature] projects.

In 1975, the newspaper Sud-Ouest took over Basque Eclair, and she worked as a journalist for her new employers until her retirement in 1990.

Among her many other works, she also published two grammar books to help encourage the study of Basque in Iparralde, Dictionnaire basque pour tous (A Basque dictionary for everyone, 1972-1975) and Grammaire basque pour tous (A Basque grammar for everyone, 1978-1981), as well as a collection of plays for children, Haur antzerkia (Children’s theater, 1983).

In sum, she remains one of the often unsung heroines of Basque letters in the twentieth-century.

Goian bego.

February 18, 1934: Fashion icon Paco Rabanne born

On February 18, 1934, Francisco “Paco” Rabaneda Cuervo was born in Pasaia, Gipuzkoa. He would go on to become Paco Rabanne, the enfant terrible of the French fashion world in the 1960s and one of the most illustrious names in the history of fashion design.

Not long after his birth, the Spanish Civil War broke out in 1936 and that part of Gipukoa where he was from, close to France, witnessed an early invasion by rebel troops in an attempt to cut off access to the border. Indeed, his father, a colonel in the Spanish army who remained loyal to the democratically elected government of the Second Republic, was executed by the insurgent forces. The family subsequently fled to France, first to Morlaix (Montroulez in Breton) in Brittany and then to Les Sables-d’Olonne, a coastal town in the western Department of Vendée.

Iconic metal and plastic dress designed by Paco Rabanne (1967). Worn by Baroness Helen Bachofen von Echt at New York party at which she danced with Frank Sinatra. Image by Nadia Priestly, courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

Rabanne would have been aware of the fashion industry from an early age as his mother had been chief seamstress at the Balenciaga salon, owned by the other great Basque fashion icon, Cristóbal Balenciaga (see an earlier post here). Although he originally studied architecture at the French National Fine Arts School in Paris in the 1950s, by the end of his studies he was already designing jewelry for Givenchy, Dior, and of course Balenciaga. He founded his own fashion house in 1966 and gained a reputation for his radical and striking designs, often incorporating a diversity of colors and unconventional materials such as metal, paper, and plastic, and with more than a hint of a futurist or post-industrial elements. Indeed, he was responsible for the costume design in the iconic science fiction movie Barbarella (1968), starring Jane Fonda.  In the late 1960s he began a collaboration with Barcelona-based fragrance company Puig, which resulted in the launch of the Rabanne perfume line, one of the best-known brands in the world. More recently, from the 1990s on, he began exhibiting his drawings and paintings, but he remains one of the great fashion icons of the world today.

Check out the official Paco Rabanne website here.

 

Old European culture and language finds new home and thrives thousands of miles across the Atlantic: Does this sound familiar?

Do you know the name of a small stateless nation in Western Europe with a vibrant and distinct old culture and language (which predates later languages like English, French, and Spanish), has a flag composed of the colors red, white, and green, and from where people left in the nineteenth century to settle an inhospitable landscape in the Americas, while today their descendants celebrate their cultural heritage by maintaining many of the customs and the language of their forbears?  Got it? Yes… it’s Wales!

The flag of Wales. Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

We’ve posted before on the cultural and historical links between the Basque Country and Wales, and we think this is yet another great story that will resonate with people with Basque connections. In 1865, a group of Welsh people settled in Patagonia, Argentina, developing the inhospitable landscape to forge what is today Chubut Province. The capital of Chubut is Rawson (from the Welsh ‘Trerawson’) and other Welsh place names include Puerto Madryn (‘Porth Madryn’ in Welsh), Trelew, and Trevelin. Interestingly, these were all Welsh-speakers, and the settlement was a planned effort to try and establish a new Welsh-speaking community 7,000 miles away from home. Its founders were worried that, with the growing emphasis placed on English, the Welsh language would die out in Wales and thus embarked on this extraordinary journey. To this day, and despite many ups and downs, Welsh exists as a language of everyday use in this part of Argentina, in the area known as Y Wladfa (the Colony), and is strongest in the coastal towns of Gaiman and Trelew, and the Andean settlement of Trevelin. Today, estimates vary on there being anywhere between 5,000 and 12,000 native Welsh-speakers in this area, with a further 25,000 speaking it as their second language. After a number of years through the twentieth century when official Argentinian government policy sought to establish a Spanish-only society, in the last few decades Argentina has embraced what it sees as the general benefits of a multicultural and multilingual society. This has led to a flourishing of the Welsh language, with schools full of learners and newspapers like Y Drafod (established in 1891) and the newer Clecs Camwy (2011).

The flag of Puerto Madryn, representing the Welsh-Argentinian experience. Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

If you have a spare hour, check out this amazing documentary, in English, Welsh, and Spanish (with subtitles!), made by the BBC Cymru/Wales, about this community.

So what of the Basque connection? Well, apart from the obvious similarities in the immigrant experience as a whole, as we all know, Basques also settled in Argentina. There is a Basque community in Chubut as well, represented by the Centro Vasco Etorritakoengatk in Puerto Madryn and the Centro Vasco del Noreste del Chubut in Trelew. And we know that both the Welsh- and Basque-Argentinians have taken part together in many multicultural events.

While such stories may be somewhat anecdotal to the great “narrative” of the history we are taught more generally, footnotes at best within larger, supposedly more important stories, I do think they are valid examples of the triumph and endurance of the human spirit; of how we as groups cherish our cultures, our minority (and minoritized) languages, and the lengths we go to in order to maintain and extend our community ties via these cultures and languages. And there are many lessons to be learned here for Basque-Americans. Cautionary tales do abound, of course, such as that of the Scottish Gaelic-speaking community in Prince Edward Island and Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, Canada, which numbered around 200,000 people in 1850–helping make Gaelic, in both its Scottish and Irish varieties (the latter found principally in Newfoundland) the third most spoken language in Canada after English and French at the time–but today stands at around 7,000. That said, the Government of Nova Scotia did establish an Office of Gaelic Affairs to support and promote the Gaelic language there and current efforts to revitalize the language include literature and even movies in Gaelic.  Check out the following short documentary movie about the Gaels (Gaelic-speakers) in this regard:

If you’re interested in this topic, you may like our multi-authored work, Language Rights and Cultural Diversity, edited by Xabier Irujo and Viola Miglio. This work addresses the themes of language rights and language protection, and how minority languages contribute to enriching the lives of all those around them (something that is explicitly made clear toward the end of the BBC Cymru/Wales documentary).

 

“The Time of the Lambing and Shearing” – A New Exhibit at the Basque Museum & Cultural Center in Boise

If you’re near Boise this week, check out the opening of what promises to be a fascinating new exhibit, “The Time of Lambing and Shearing,” at the Basque Museum & Cultural Center. The opening and reception take place on Thursday, February 23, at 6:00 pm.

The exhibit is based on the work of photojournalist Jan Boles, who in 1976 photographed the last lambing and shearing operations at the J.D. Aldecoa and Son, Inc ranch for a feature for the Idaho Free Press. Just recently, we posted a response to a reader’s query about native Basque breeds of sheep (see the post here) and it got us to thinking that there is a potentially a major narrative to be written about the role of sheep and sheepherding in forging the American West.  Lambing and shearing are two key cultural as well as practical events in the calendar of any sheepherding culture, bringing communities together. In the Basque case, such times would have represented a great example of auzolan. According to Wikipedia, the sheep-shearing feast is the setting for Act IV of Shakespeare’s A Winter’s Tale. And sixteenth-century English poet and farmer Thomas Tusser even created  a verse for the occasion:

Wife make us a dinner, spare flesh neither corne,
Make wafers and cakes, for our sheepe must be shorne,
At sheep shearing neighbors none other thing craue,
but good cheer and welcome, like neighbors to haue

Even if you can’t  make it to the opening tomorrow, this promises to be well worth a visit. We’re sure the exhibit will be yet another wonderful addition by the Basque Museum & Cultural Center to a greater understanding of the importance and contribution of Basques to this more general story.

It goes without saying that the seminal Amerikanuak: Basques in the New World, by William A. Douglass and Jon Bilbao is  must read for anyone interested in the importance of the sheep industry to the Basque experience in the United States. For the Old World experience, check out Sandra Ott’s superb ethnography, The Circle of Mountains: A Basque Shepherding Community.

“Basques in Cuba” : William A. Douglass to lecture at the CBS

Tomorrow, Wednesday, February 22, from 12:30-1:30, Professor Emeritus William A. Douglass will give a lecture on “Basques in Cuba” at the Center for Basque Studies. He will inaugurate the Spring 2017 Basque Multidisciplinary Seminar Series the Center organizes, presenting on a topic explored in Basques in Cuba, a collection of articles edited by Professor Douglass and published after the eleventh international ‘Euskal Herria Mugaz Gaindi” Congress held in Havana, Cuba in 2015. Here’s a brief description of the volume:

Taking as their inspiration and cue Jon Bilbao’s book Vascos en Cuba, 1492–1511, the authors of this book, a collection of international academics, take up the subject of the involvement of the Basque people in Cuba from a variety of viewpoints and analytical and theoretical perspectives. The Basque Country has had a long and varied relationship with Cuba, its people, and its history. The chapters in this volume trace that connection based on diverse topics and viewpoints: the representations of Basques in classic Cuban poetry and Cuba as a topic in the nineteenth-century Basque novel; the involvement of Basques in the African slave trade, the role of the Tree in Gernika in Cuba’s Templete monument, the service of Basque parliamentarians and soldiers in Spain’s former colony, and the politics of Basque priests on the island are all treated, as well as much more. There are also chapters that consider the involvement of Basques regionally, in places such as Cienfuegos, Santiago de Cuba, Vueltabajo, and Havana. Edited by renowned Basque scholar William A. Douglass, this volume provides an important contribution in reclaiming a mostly neglected history. (from the back cover)

Be sure to attend if you happen to find yourself in Reno, and stay tuned for the seminar series schedule, you won’t want to miss out!

February 16, 2015: First edition of rare Basque manuscript discovered

Cover of Dotrina christiana (first edition, 1617), by Esteve Materra. Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

On February 16, 2015 it was announced that a unique first edition of Esteve Materra’s Doctrina Christiana (Christian Doctrine, Bordeaux, 1617) had been discovered in the Royal Library, Copenhagen, Denmark. The discovery was made by the Aziti Bihia linguists’ and philologists’ association, a group of doctoral students at the University of the Basque Country whose interests lay predominantly in historical linguistics linked to Basque philology. The young people involved in the find were Borja Ariztimuño, Dorota Krajewska, Urtzi Reguero, Ekaitz Santazilia, Oxel Uribe-Etxeberria, and Eneko Zuloaga.

Flyer to promote the official announcement of the find, February 16, 2015. From the Aziti Bihia website.

Doctrina Christiana was one of the first ever books published in Euskara, the Basque language, and is written in classical Lapurdian. Its author, Esteve Materra (or possibly Materre), was a Franciscan monk and abbot of the La Réole monastery in southwestern France when the book was first published, although by the time it went to a second edition (1623) he had moved to the Franciscan monastery in Toulouse. Although not a native Basque-speaker, Materra spent some time in Sara, Lapurdi, where he had been sent at the height of the Counter Reformation to bolster the rearguard action of the Roman Catholic Church, including in its Inquisition policy. In barely twelve months in the Basque Country he learned Basque, although the very clarity and perfection of the text makes the members of Aziti Bihia suspect that he may have received help in writing it. Masterra himself notes in the prologue to the book that he was aided by Axular. Pedro Axular (1556-1664) was the parish priest of Sara and author of the first great literary text in Basque, Guero (1643). Whatever the case, the book is an important work when it comes to understanding the historical development of written Basque.

The first edition of the work is relatively simple in appearance, as if written for children or young people, in question and answer style; by the second edition, however, an additional section had been added, specifically for seafarers, and the work as a whole was more serious in tone and longer. This is important because originally the Aziti Bihia group had been working on transcribing the second edition of 1623, a copy of which is housed in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, before stumbling across a reference to the earlier edition in Denmark.

For more information on the text itself (including transcriptions) click here at the Aziti Bihia website.

 

From an Early Basque Literature Connection to a Playground for Hollywood Royalty: The Remarkable Story of the Etxauz Château

Set amid the lush green hills surrounding Baigorri in Lower Navarre, the Etxauz Château is one of the most important buildings, historically and culturally speaking, in Iparralde, the Northern Basque Country.  It is thought to have been constructed around 1555 on the orders of Grazian Etxauz, Viscount of Baigorri, a member of one of the oldest noble houses in Lower Navarre (whose family name has historically also been spelled Echauz, Eschaud, (de) Echaux, and Etchauz). Thereafter it enjoyed a remarkable history that included some illustrious owners and guests.

The grandson of Grazian Etxauz, Bertrand Etxauz (c. 1556-1641), inherited the title Viscount of Baigorri together with the property on the death of his father Antoine, who had been breadmaster to King Henry II of France (an important position at the French court). Bertrand entered the Church and, possessing good connections as an almoner to both his kinsman King Henry IV (Henry III of Navarre) and his successor Louis XIII, was appointed Bishop of Baiona in 1599. Then in 1617 he was made Archbishop of Tours, a post he held until his death in 1641. Bertrand Etxauz was a strong advocate of the Catholic Counter-Reformation, especially in response to the rise of Calvinism in the Basque Country in the sixteenth century (on which see a previous post on Jeanne d’Albret, Queen of Navarre) and also took part in organizing the Catholic Church’s witch hunts. In regard to the latter, however, it would appear that Etxauz called for clemency where possible and a peaceful solution o to the issue of suspected witchcraft. In The Basques of Lapurdi, Zuberoa, and Lower Navarre: Their History and Their Traditions, Philippe Veyrin notes (p. 179): “on the advice of the prelate [Etxauz], who was disturbed by the excesses of the criminal commission [on witchcraft], Henry IV recalled the cruel councilor De Lancre who had been unwisely granted overextended powers.” Etxauz even intervened personally to save the lives of five priests who had been condemned to death for alleged witchcraft activities.

Bertrand Etxauz (c. 1556-1641).

Interestingly, a 1584 letter written in Basque by Etxauz to his brother is housed in the French National Library and he was clearly involved in Basque cultural circles.  He was a friend and patron of Pedro Agerre, “Axular” (c. 1556-1644)–widely considered the most prominent among a productive school of writers of religious literature in the Lapurdian dialect of Basque in the early seventeenth century–whom he appointed parish priest of Sara, Lapurdi, in 1600; and this in the face of some protest because Axular was considered in some quarters a “foreigner,” having been born in Urdazubi, Navarre. Indeed, and probably at Etxauz’s insistence, Henry IV even had to write a letter supporting the appointment of Axular to the post – an extraordinary act in many ways, given that he was just a humble parish priest in a relatively quiet backwater of the kingdom. Toward the end of his life Axular published Guero (Later, 1643), one of the classic founding works of Basque literature, in which he included a dedication of thanks to Etxauz. What’s more, another writer and poet associated with this school, Joannes Etxeberri of Ziburu (c. 1580-c.1665), also included a dedication to Etxauz in his Eliçara erabiltçeco liburua (A book to use in church, 1636).

Imaginary portrait of Pedro Agerre “Axular,” with the title page of Guero in the background. Drawing by Jose Eizagirre Aiestaran. Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

The château remained in the Etxauz family, which had married into another noble family, the Caupenne d’Amous, until the nineteenth century, when the last Etxauz-Caupenne d’Amou–Jeanne Marie Marguerite de Caupenne d’Amou (1772-1830) and her husband Jean Harispe died childless. In 1848, Jeanne Marie Marguerite’s niece, who had inherited the property, sold it to Jean-Charles d’Abbadie d’Arrast (1821-1901), who lived there until his death. He was the son of a well-to-do family with a father from Ürrustoi-Larrebille (Arrast-Larrebieu) in Zuberoa and a mother from Dublin, Ireland (in fact, the couple’s children were born in Dublin). One of his brothers, Arnaud-Michel d’Abbadie (1815-1893) was a geographer who explored and wrote about the geography, geology, archaeology, and natural history of Ethiopia. Arnaud-Michel was accompanied on his travels by older brother, Antoine Thomson d’Abbadie d’Arrast (1810-1897), the great explorer, geographer, ethnologist, linguist, and astronomer, who was also a key figure in promoting Basque culture in the nineteenth century.  Antoine had his own château in Hendaia, Lapurdi, which remains an important site of historic and cultural interest to this day (see an earlier post on this château).

Following Jean-Charles’s death in 1901, the château remained in the family and was used as vacation home by subsequent generations. Prominent among these younger members of the family to use Etxauz was Harry d’Abbadie d’Arrast (1897-1968). Born in Argentina, Harry served in the French army in World War I and later became a Hollywood screenwriter and director, being nominated at the 4th Academy Awards for the now defunct category of “Best Story” for the film Laughter (1930). In the 1920s and 1930s he also entertained many Hollywood luminaries at the Etxauz Château in the heart of the Basque Country, including Douglas Fairbanks, Mary Pickford, and Gloria Swanson as well as frequent guest Charlie Chaplin (who visited in 1925, 1926, and 1931). Harry had been an assistant director on Chaplin’s classic The Gold Rush (1925) and the two formed a friendship as a result (a friendship that later withered resulting in Harry’s name being removed from the credits during future screenings of the movie). One anecdote goes that Chaplin was not best pleased with the badly functioning out-of-date phone at the château, so on one of his visits he brought his own phone with him, which he subsequently left there and which became a feature of the residence.

Harry d’Abbadie d’Arrast and and his wife Eleanor Boardman.

In yet another amazing twist, the château was occupied by Nazi forces in World War II. Many of the soldiers stationed there were actually Austrians from similarly mountainous regions back home, They left their physical mark on the place, drawing murals that still survive to this day. Harry no longer returned to Etxauz after the war. He had married retired silent film actress Eleanor Boardman (1898–1991) in 1940 and after he died in Monte Carlo in 1968 she sold the estate, which had been in the family for over 100 years, in 1976. The new owners did not treat the property so well, unfortunately, and it was left to decay. That said, in 1989 it was officially classified as a historical monument (monument historique), the designation given to a site of national heritage in France. And in the mid-1990s it was bought, restored, and turned into a guesthouse. Then in December 2003 it was bought by a Miami-based businessman and his wife (from Erratzu in Navarre).

They are now looking to sell and this has prompted a grassroots campaign to buy the property, which this campaign refers to as Etxauzia, to be used by the local community in the service of Basque culture and transformed into the Nafartarren Etxea (the home of the Navarrese). This is a campaign intended to mobilize all the Basque Country and the diaspora in order to create a singular meeting point in one of the most important historical Basque buildings still in existence.

Check out the campaign website here.

Sources:

Nagore Irazustabarrena, “Etxauz: Axular eta Chplin lotzen ditun haria,” Argia (May 31, 2015).

“A Thousand Years of History,” Part 1 and Part 2 at the Etxauzia website.

 

 

 

Basques abroad

It is hard to believe I am finally here in the Basque Country.  I’m tempted to say that I’ve waited a long time to get here to Euskalherria to start my fieldwork, but that wouldn’t be a completely accurate statement.  I could even say with some certainty that this year’s work and life in the Basque Country will represent both a reduction and culmination of my life’s interests and experiences, however, that would be limiting to the extensions of those same interests which lead me here:  languages, culture, wine, travel, food, diversity, and making connections with people around the world.  So, before sharing the amazing experiences I’ve already had while studying here, I would like to highlight those which were had before my arrival to the Basque Country this January.

Knowing I would be conducting fieldwork here for a whole year, I wanted to take advantage of the time and opportunity to travel to South America with my father.  In 2014, I spent an amazing time learning about the production and wine-making process in Casablanca, Chile.  With so much Basque heritage there, I was delighted to discover that the Basque diaspora still held its roots firmly planted in this South American country.  Finding the popular Basque wine called Chacoli was an adventure I won’t forget (see previous blog to read more about Chacoli in South America), discovering the ways in which a culture can change and be maintained across the globe.  But before returning to Chile, my dad and I checked out some Basque culture in Argentina.

I had come to know of a Basque restaurant from a man who had wandered into the Center for Basque Studies  before my departure.  He told me about his family and how one of them had started a restaurant in Buenos Aires.  I mentioned I’d be heading there soon, so he gave me the information to find Leiketio.  The food and drink which combined aspects of both Basque and Latin American cuisine were amazing. However, the most satisfying part of the meal was being able to use the little Basque I had acquired from the previous summer to speak to a server who had recently moved from the Basque Country.

My second encounter with Basque culture in South America happened after my dad had returned to the US, and I had moved on for my second visit to Chile.  I was in the beautiful, historic town of Valparaiso, listening to music and enjoying the warmer weather when a couple had passed me speaking Basque.  I started talking to them and found out they were the band Niña Coyote and Chico Tornado (and very well known I might add in the Basque Country! See below for a clip of their music).  Also turns out the family of one of the members lived on the same street that I currently live now here in Euskalherria!

Just goes to show that si, el mundo es un pañuelo! Hau bai mundu txikia! It’s a small world!

I hope to keep making these cross-cultural connections over the next year here.  Stay tuned for more adventures in fieldwork from here in Euskalherria!

 

Basque phrases for Valentine’s Day

If you’ve ever watched Vaya Semanita or are familiar with Basque Country stereotypes, you may have heard that it’s impossible to ligar, or hook up… basically to find your own valentine. But we’ve got some tips for you, our loyal readers. Here are a few phrases and words in Basque to flirt or perhaps pay a loved one a compliment, gozatu!

  • maitea/maitia : my love
  • laztana : darling
  • bihotza : my heart
  • Nire bihotzeko laztana : The darling of my heart
  • Nire bihotzeko azukre koxkorra : The sugar lump of my heart
  • jatorra : nice
  • alaia : happy
  • baikorra : positive
  • (oso/asko) Maite zaitut :  I love you (a lot)

Neskentzat/For girls:

  • polita/panpox : pretty
  • Ze neska puxka : What a girl!

Mutilentzat/For boys:

  • zangarra : darling, brave
  • dotorea : handsome
  • prestua : nice
  • kementsua/ausarta : brave
  • indartsua : strong
  • trebea : skilled
  • Hau mutil katxarroa : What a guy

Piropoak or Losintxak/Compliments

  • Txora-txora eginda naukazu : You drive me crazy
  • Gatza bera ere gozatuko zenuke : You’d make salt sweet
  • Zure begiek mintzen naute : Your eyes hurt me (but in the sense that they’re so beautiful)
  • Zu zara nire saltzaren perrexila : You are the parsley to my sauce
  • Hi haiz nire bihotzak behar duen taupada : You are the beat my heart needs
  • Egun ilunenak arigtzen dituen distira zara : You are the brightness that lights dark days
  • Zu zara nire neguko berogailua : You are my winter heater
  • Ni pirata eta zu nire altxorra : I’m a pirate and you’re my treasure
  • Hain begi politak dituzu… non… non… originaltasuna agortu zaidan : What beautiful eyes you have…um…um… my originality finishes there
  • Zu etxerako : You, with me for my house!
  • Harrapatuz gero : If I catch you…
  • Zu ogia bazina eta ni tomatea, hori ogitarteko ederra : If you were bread and me a tomato, that would be a great sandwich!
  • Bizitza zu gabe afari bat ardo ona gabe bezalakoa da : Life without you is like dinner without a good wine
  • Egunsenti guztiak zu bezain ederrak balira, goiz esnatuko nitzateke egunero : If every dawn was as beautiful/handsome as you, I’d want to wake up early every day
  • Haritz zaharren modura sustrai sendoak dituzu nere bihotzean : Like the old oaks your roots reach deep down into my heart
  • Ai zelako irriparra, hura da nire iparra, gidatzen nauen izarra! Oh what a smile, he/she’s my north, the star that guides me!

Now for some Vaya Semanita humor, sorry it’s in Spanish!

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